Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners
Morrison, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics
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The placement of
English language learners in mainstream classes has become more
and more common in recent years. Many of these students have not
developed the necessary English language proficiency to keep up
with their classmates. "Even though language minority students
may take up to seven years to develop the level of language
proficiency necessary to compete on an equal footing with native
speakers of the school language, they are likely to be in
mainstream classes long before then" (Harklau, 1994). What can
mainstream teachers do to help English language learners in
their classes excel?
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Asian-American Children: What Teachers Should Know
The Biculturation of the Vietnamese Student
Bridging Identities Among Ethnic Minority Youth in Schools
Content-Centered Language Learning
Critical Behaviors and Strategies for Teaching Culturally
Educating Language Minority Children
Effective Approaches to Teaching Young Mexican-American Children
Enhancing the Communication Skills of Newly-Arrived Asian
Integrating Language and Culture in Middle School American
Promoting Successful Transition to the Mainstream: Effective
Instructional Strategies for Bilingual Students
Reforming Mathematics Instruction for ESL Literacy Students
Strategies for Success: Engaging Immigrant Students in Secondary
Using Cognitive Strategies to Develop English Language and
What Early Childhood Teachers Need to Know About Language
What Elementary Teachers Need to Know About Language
Working with Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Families
for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) offers
the Web document
Conversations with Mainstream Teachers: What Can We Tell Them
About Second Language Learning and Teaching? This list of
frequently asked questions concludes with an annotated
Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE)
offers the publications
Successful Transition to Mainstream English: Effective
Strategies for Studying Literature,
Teaching Language Minority Students in Elementary Schools,
Teaching Secondary Language Minority Students.
Stream Center on Resources and Training offers a series of
starter kits for teachers,
Help! They Donít Speak English! Starter Kit for Primary Teachers,
Help! They Donít Speak English! Starter Kit for Teachers of
Young Adults, and
The Help! Kit: A Resource Guide for Secondary Teachers of
Migrant English Language Learners.
Education Alliance at Brown University offers a
Diversity Kit and other resources in the
Equity and Diversity section of their Web site.
ESL/Bilingual Resource Guide for Mainstream Teachers from
Portland public schools covers the basic concepts of language
acquisition theory, essential tips for mainstream teachers of
ESL students, teaching reading tips, and a list of terms related
to ESL and bilingual programs.
ESL Infusion: Principles for Teaching English Learners in the
Mainstream Classroom describes key concepts for effective
instruction for English language learners, such as
comprehensible input, meaningful access to the curriculum, and
conversational versus academic language.
ESL in the Mainstream: How Technology Can Help is intended
to give teachers resources and hands-on practice in using
technology to assist in their instruction.
ESL Resources for Mainstream Teachers is a list of links
Carolina TESOL that directs mainstream teachers to resources
ranging from ESL assessment to legal issues and technology.
ESL Students in Mainstream Classes covers some of the
similarities and differences between ESL students and native
ESL Versus Mainstream Classes: Contrasting L2 Learning
Environments, from TESOL Quarterly, documents
differences in the goals and organization of instruction of
mainstream and ESL classrooms.
EverythingESL provides many resources for working with
Activities for Newcomers,
Tips on Communicating With Newcomers , and
Organizing Your Newcomers' Day.
For Mainstream Teachers of ESL Students, from Frankfurt
International School, provides information to answer mainstream
teachersí most basic questions about teaching ESL.
National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and
Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA) has a
section in its online library devoted to
Strategies for Mainstream Teachers. NCELA also provides the
Helping Language Minority Students After They Exit from
Bilingual/ESL Program: A Handbook for Teachers. NCELA's
In the Classroom: A Toolkit for Effective Instruction of ELLs
is a user-friendly guide designed for teachers who know very
little about ESL and includes links to descriptions of each
method, sample handouts, and activities.
TESL Manitoba provides links to a number of online resources
for content-based ESL teachers and for teaching ESL students in
Adger, C. T.,
Snow, C. E., & Christian, D. (Eds.). (2002). What teachers need
to know about language. McHenry, IL, and Washington, DC: Delta
Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics.
Cary, S. (2000). Working with second language learners: Answers
to teachersí top ten questions. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Claire, E., & Haynes, J. (1994). The classroom teacher's ESL
survival kit #1. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education ESL.
Claire, E., & Haynes, J. (1995). The classroom teacher's ESL
survival kit #2. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education ESL.
Franklin, E. (Ed.). (1999). Reading and writing in more than one
language: Lessons for teachers. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of
English to Speakers of Other Languages.
Freeman, D. E., & Freeman, Y. S. (2000). Teaching reading in
multilingual classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning:
Teaching second language learners in the mainstream classroom.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Helmer, S., & Eddy, C. (2001). Look at me when I talk to you:
ESL learners in non-ESL classrooms. Toronto, Canada: Pippin.
Irujo, S. (Ed.). (2000). Integrating the ESL standards into
classroom practice. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to
Speakers of Other Languages.
Jameson, J. (2002). Professional development for bilingual and
ESL paraprofessionals: The aspire curriculum. McHenry, IL, and
Washington, DC: Delta Systems and Center for Applied
Grognet, A., Jameson, J., Franco, L., & Derrick-Mescua, M.
(2000). Enhancing English language learning in elementary
classrooms. McHenry, IL, and Washington, DC: Delta Systems and
Center for Applied Linguistics.
Jameson, J. (1998). Enriching content classes for secondary ESOL
students. McHenry, IL, and Washington, DC: Delta Systems and
Center for Applied Linguistics.
Peregoy, S., & Boyle. O. (2001). Reading, writing, and learning
in ESL. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Reed, B., & Railsback, J. (2003). Strategies and resources for
mainstream teachers of English language learners. Portland, OR:
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
Spangenberg-Urbschat, K., & Pritchard, R. (Eds.). (1994). Kids
come in all languages. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to
Speakers of Other Languages.
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