Bridges4Kids Logo

Home ] What's New ] Contact Us ] About Us ] Links ] Search ] Glossaries ] Contact Legislators ] Reviews ] Downloads ] Disabilities ] IDEA ] Special Education ] Medicaid/SSI ] Childcare/Respite ] Wraparound ] Insurance ] PAC/SEAC ] Ed Reform ] Literacy ] Community Schools ] Children At-Risk ] Section 504 ] School Climate/Bullying ] Parenting/Adoption ] Home Schooling ] Community Living ] Health & Safety ] Summer Camp ] Kids & Teens ] College/Financial Aid ] Non-Public & Other Schools ] Legal Research ] Court Cases ] Juvenile Justice ] Advocacy ] Child Protective Services ] Statistics ] Legislation ] Ask the Attorney ] Lead Poisoning ]
 Where to find help for a child in Michigan, Anywhere in the U.S., or Canada
Bridges4Kids is now on Facebook. Follow us today!
Last Updated: 02/01/2018

 Disability Information - Apraxia


General Information

Education & Classroom Accommodations

Michigan Resources, Support Groups, Listservs & Websites

National Resources & Websites

Articles Related to this Disability

Medical Information

Books & Videos

Personal Home Pages & Websites


back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 General Information


Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Developmental (Childhood) apraxia of speech is a disorder of the nervous system that affects the ability to sequence and say sounds, syllables, and words. It is not due to muscular weakness or paralysis. The problem is in the brain's planning to move the body parts needed for speech (e.g., lips, jaw, tongue). The child knows what he or she wants to say, but the brain is not sending the correct instructions to move the body parts of speech the way they need to be moved. There is no known cause of the disorder.

Signs of Developmental Apraxia of Speech In Very Young Children
The child...

  • does not coo or babble as an infant

  • produces first words after some delay, but these words are missing sounds

  • produces only a few different consonant sounds

  • is unsuccessful at combining sounds

  • simplifies words by replacing difficult sounds with easier ones or by deleting difficult sounds (Although all children do this, the child with developmental apraxia of speech does so more often).

  • may have feeding problems.

Signs of Developmental Apraxia of Speech In Older Children
The child...

  • makes inconsistent sound errors that are not the result of immaturity

  • can understand language much better than he or she can produce it

  • has difficulty imitating speech

  • may appear to be groping when attempting to produce sounds or to coordinate the lips, tongue, and jaw for purposeful movement

  • has more difficulty saying longer phrases than shorter ones

  • appears to be worse when he or she is anxious

  • is hard for listeners to understand.

  • Some children may have other developmental and communication problems as well. These problems can include weakness of the lips, jaw, or tongue; delayed language development; other expressive language problems; difficulties with fine motor movement; and problems with oral-sensory perception (identifying an object in the mouth through the sense of touch).


Apraxia is a motor disorder in which volitional or voluntary movement is impaired without muscle weakness. The ability to select and sequence movements is impaired. Oral apraxia affects one ability to move the muscles of the mouth for non-speech purposes. Someone with oral apraxia would have trouble coughing, swallowing, wiggling their tongue or blowing a kiss when asked to do so. Verbal apraxia, or apraxia of speech is an impairment in the sequencing of speech sounds.

The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education (ERIC EC)
Apraxia of speech is felt to be a neurogenic (neurologically based) speech motor disorder. Many (or perhaps most) children with apraxia of speech have no abnormalities as detected by MRI scans. Others may have specific damage to a part of the brain that can account for the problem. In the latter case, some children are born with such damage and other children acquire damage to the brain by accident or illness.

NINDS Apraxia Information Page
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements.

Verbal Apraxia
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

Apraxia of Speech
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Apraxia of speech, also known as verbal apraxia or dyspraxia, is a speech disorder in which a person has trouble saying what he or she wants to say correctly and consistently. It is not due to weakness or paralysis of the speech muscles (the muscles of the face, tongue, and lips). The severity of apraxia of speech can range from mild to severe.

Developmental Apraxia of Speech
What is dyspraxia? Let's start with a reminder about what it is not! Developmental Apraxia of Speech is a childhood speech disorder. It is NOT the same as "Apraxia" or "Dyspraxia" in adults who have had strokes or head injuries.

Developmental Apraxia of Speech
Mayo Clinic Rochester
Significant difficulty acquiring speech sounds; many errors in making speech sounds, including omissions, distortions and additions; halting, slow, or awkward speech rate and sequencing of sounds; awkward attempts to correct errors; more errors as length of words or phrases increase; awareness of speech difficulty.

What is Developmental Apraxia of Speech?
This excellent article by Ann S. Guild,MACCC/SLP with some additions Tracy Vail, MSCCC/SLP is reproduced with their permission in order to help all parents, grandparents, special educators and speech language pathologists understand our children. It is the best handout that I have seen. Please give it to anyone who touches children who display these symptoms.

Ask the Experts About Apraxia
What Is Developmental Apraxia of Speech?
By Diane Paul-Brown and Roseanne Clausen
A child with developmental apraxia of speech has trouble correctly producing and sequencing sounds, syllables, and words. Generally, there is nothing wrong with the muscles of the face, tongue, lips, and jaw. The problem is thought to arise from difficulty accessing the "motor plan" from the brain for saying a sound or word.

Developmental Apraxia
by Nancy William, M.A.
What is developmental apraxia? Apraxia is difficulty forming sounds into words. The term "developmental apraxia" is used when children have this problem.

How did parents discover fish oil helped their children talk?
What is ProEFA, EFA, LCP, and DHA? And could they possibly help your child? The answer will be clear to all in the near future. This is because CHERAB will soon begin research on apraxia and EFAs (Essential Fatty Acids) based on the outcome of the hugely successful First Scientific Conference Dedicated to the Therapy of Verbal Apraxia/Dyspraxia.

Jörg Mayer, Institute of Natural Language Processing, Stuttgart, Germany
The present study proposes a new interpretation of the underlying distortion in apraxia of speech. Based on the experimental investigation of coarticulation it is argued that apraxia of speech has to be seen as a defective implementation of phonological representations at the phonology- phonetics interface. The characteristic production deficits of apraxic patients are explained in terms of over-specification of phonetic representations. with the corresponding articulators resting in a neutral position or moving from one target to another without affecting the actually produced sound(s).

back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 Education & Classroom Accommodations


Early Intervention
SpeechVille Express
The prognosis for a child with a communication disorder is improved if the child receives appropriate therapy at three years of age over that of a child who first receives a diagnosis and appropriate therapy at the age of six. So why are some children with apraxia diagnosed after the early intervention years?

What Speech Therapy "Looks" Like
SpeechVille Express
The exact format and content of your typical speech therapy session will, of course, depend on the age of your child, whether they are in private or group sessions, and what level of functioning they are at.

Oral motor exercises
Schatze Rasmussen
Oral motor exercises are occasionally necessary for weak articulators or muscles in the mouth and face for speech production. They sometimes need strengthening, need to move farther and/or have better coordination. These can help a child make speech sounds better as well as help with the eating/feeding/swallowing problems some children have difficulty with.

Therapy Techniques Common For Apraxia
Schatze Rasmussen
Apraxia therapy can seem pretty complicated and it may take a long time to see progress, or so it seems. The key to success with any apraxic patient or student is to find what works for him or her, since every person is not the same.

Therapy Matrix

Due Process Between A School And A Child With Apraxia

This is a long but interesting law case from April 25, 2000 between a student with not only oral apraxia, but global apraxia, and his school. (He wins!)

back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 Michigan Resources, Support Groups, Listservs & Websites



Speech, Language and Sensory-Motor Systems, Inc.
9388 North Lilley Road Plymouth, MI 48170
Phone: (734) 454-0866 Fax: (734) 454-1744
Offering Comprehensive, Multi-Disciplined Pediatric Therapy and Education Programs. 2003 Recipient of the Clinical Services Award by The Michigan Speech and Hearing Association.

Waterford School District Speech Language Pathologists Website
The Waterford School District Speech Language Pathologists would like to welcome you to our web site. We have included information that we hope will answer many of your questions. You will also find suggestions on how to improve your child's speech and language skills through a variety of activities as well as resources for additional information.

back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 National Resources & Websites


The Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association
The Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association is a nonprofit organization dedicated to children with speech apraxia (verbal dyspraxia) and their families, the professionals who care about them, and the researchers trying to find answers. The Association provides help, guidance, information, referral, education, and research support to thousands of families and professionals each year on topics related to apraxia and associated speech, language, and learning delays, education, therapy, and services.

Speech Pathology Online
Speech Pathology Online is a leading speech language pathology information source.

Cherab Foundation
The Cherab Foundation is a world-wide nonprofit organization working to improve the communication skills and education of all children with speech and language delays and disorders. Our area of emphasis is verbal and oral apraxia, severe neurologically-based speech and language disorders that hinder children's ability to speak.

Apraxia Support CANADA
Developmental Apraxia of Speech is a neurologically-based motor planning speech disorder that affects a very small number of children. Children with apraxia have extreme difficulty translating their thoughts into the correct sequence of movements of their mouth, tongue, and lips.

CHERAB - ECHO – Speechville Discussion Forum
Connecting caregivers of children struggling with speech or language.

CHERAB Foundation Yahoo Group
This group is for important updates and announcements only.

Childrensapraxianet Yahoo Group
Please join us and help to give our children a smile and a voice.

Latetalkers Yahoo Group
To discuss developmental speech delays caused by apraxia (dyspraxia), phonological disorders, autism spectrum disorders, learning disabilies, or other causes. The list is varied but our common thread is helping those children attain intelligible speech.

Parent Pals Speech and Language Message Board

SLP Forum
Use this message board to communicate with clinicians, students, and patients from all over the world!

back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 Articles Related to this Disability


S.P. Whiteside and R.A. Varley, Department of Human Communication Sciences, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom)
This paper presents a reconceptualization of apraxia of speech (AOS) and reviews a range of acoustic and articulatory data which have been reported on apraxia of speech. Data from both domains, and previous theoretical debate are discussed as support for this cognitive-based reconceptualization.

Look Who’s Talking Now: Fish oil capsules help children with speech disorders find their voices
A simple fish oil supplement may be the key to dramatically unlock the voices of children with speech and language disorders.

Jersey’s Helping Hands
By Michelle Howe, Star-Ledger Staff’s
An advocate for a little-known disorder.


back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 Medical Information


back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 Books & Videos


The Official Patient's Sourcebook on Apraxia: A Revised and Updated Directory for the Internet Age
by Icon Health Publications
This is a "must have" reference book for patients, parents, caregivers, and libraries with medical collections. This sourcebook is organized into three parts. Part I explores basic techniques to researching apraxia (e.g. finding guidelines on diagnosis, treatments, and prognosis), followed by a number of topics, including information on how to get in touch with organizations, associations, or other patient networks dedicated to apraxia.

Childhood Apraxia of Speech Resource Guide
by Shelley Lynne Velleman
This comprehensive resource guide was created in response to the requests from practicing speech language pathologists and parents of children with apraxia of speech for information on the nature of this complicated disorder and advice on assessment and treatment methods. Fundamental aspects of the disorder are discussed in depth and different viewpoints regarding apraxia are compared, eliminating the need to track down multiple sources.

Helping Children With Dyspraxia
by Maureen Boon
Helping Children with Dyspraxia provides clear and positive answers to the questions commonly asked by parents and teachers about behavior, causes, identification and assessment associated with dyspraxia and discusses the range of possible therapeutic interventions. Maureen Boon shows how a therapeutic approach can benefit this group and how parents and teachers can actively participate in the child's therapy.

Take Time to Talk: A Resource for Apraxia Therapy, Esophageal Speech Training, Aphasia Therapy, and Articulation Therapy
by Patricia F. White
Second edition of a text of therapeutic drills for speech pathologists. Specifically discusses apraxic, aphasic, laryngectomees, dysarthric, and pediatric patients. Wire-spiral binding. DNLM: Speech Therapy - methods.

Dyspraxia : A Guide For Teachers and Parents (Resource Materials for Teachers)
by Kate Ripley, Bob Daines, Jenny Barrett
102 pages.

Apraxia: The Neuropsychology of Action
by Leslie J. Gonzalez Rothi (Editor), Kenneth M. Heilman (Editor), Leslie J. Gonzalex Rothi
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville. A collection of papers by various authors includes: history of apraxia, new technologies, and issues relating to research as well as clinical assessment and management. 17 contributors, 14 U.S.

Treating Disordered Speech Motor Control (For Clinicians by Clinicians)
by Deanie Vogel (Editor), Michael P. Cannito (Editor)
499 pages.

Disorders of Articulation: Aspects of Dysarthria and Verbal Dyspraxia (Disorders of Human Communication 7)
by Margaret Edwards
The book describes certain types of language disability associated with neurological dysfunction. Specifically it deals with a range of dysarthric disorders and with verbal dyspraxia, both developmental and acquired aspect.

Agnosia and Apraxia: Selected Papers of Liepmann, Lange, and Potzl (Institute for Research in Behavioral Neuroscience)
by Jason W. Brown (Editor)
336 pages.

Dysarthria and Apraxia
by Perkins

Apraxia of Speech: Physiology, Acoustics, Linguistics, Management
by John C. Rosenbek (Editor)

Developmental Apraxia of Speech: Theory and Clinical Practice
by Penelope K. Hall, Linda S. Jordan, Donald A. Robin
214 pages.

THE LCP SOLUTION: The Remarkable Nutritional Treatment for ADHD, Dyslexia, and Dyspraxia
by B. Jacqueline, Ph.D. Stordy, Malcolm J. Nicholl, Jacqueline Stordy
This important new book documents a major breakthrough in the treatment of the three most widespread learning disabilities--ADHD, dyslexia, and dyspraxia ("clumsy child syndrome"). Although these conditions have reached epidemic proportions, treatment has been limited to ineffective behavioral therapies or the controversial prescription drug Ritalin. Now Dr. B. Jacqueline Stordy, a leading researcher in the field, reveals a stunning new treatment based on a simple nutritional supplement.

CD - AphasiaTutor 0: Sights 'n Sounds
Speech therapy software that improves articulation and word retrieval. Useful for aphasia and oral apraxia.

CD - Time to Sing!
New Arrangements by Michael Moricz, A Project of the Center for Creative Play
This special CD was created to help young children (2-8 years) learn the words to familiar songs - especially children who suffer from apraxia, a disorder that makes it difficult for children to sequence and execute speech movements. The words are much slower than the originals, but the music is fun, exciting, playful, and beautiful, and will be enjoyed by all children.

back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 Personal Home Pages & Websites


back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link



© 2002-2018 Bridges4Kids