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Article of Interest - Section 504

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Sevier County Tennessee School System Section 504 Plans: Examples of Program Accommodations and Adjustments
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This document contains possible examples of 504 accommodations. This is intended to be a staff document. The following examples are not offered as check lists and should never be considered as all-inclusive or mandatory listings. Rather the following are examples intended to serve as “starters” for 504 teams designing accommodation plans that meet a student’s specific need(s). The best 504 plans incorporate teacher expertise and available regular education resources. The Student Support Team process involves schools in identifying the resources they (and outside agencies) have to support various student needs. Obviously, the kinds of accommodations schools can provide will vary based on school, level, etc. No attempt was made to sort these examples by level, etc. The 504 evaluation team decides the accommodations that will best support a particular student. The following examples are organized into two groups. The first group includes general environmental, organizational, behavioral, presentation, and assessment strategies. The second group includes possible examples of accommodations that might be valuable when dealing with specific disability profiles.

General Accommodations
Environmental Strategies
Organizational Strategies
Behavioral Strategies
Presentation Strategies
Evaluation Methods

Accommodation Examples for Specific Disabilities
Cerebral Palsy
Cystic Fibrosis
Deaf/Hearing Impairment
Emotionally Disturbed
Hearing Impairment
Learning Disability
Orthopedically Impaired
Student with Special Health Care Needs
Temporarily Disabled
Tourette's Syndrome
Traumatic Brain Injury
Visual Impairment
Weight (obesity, anorexia, bulimia)

General Accommodations
General program accommodations/adjustments or services are always made on a case-by-case basis and individualized. Accommodations are to be reasonable. Accommodations are intended to provide persons with disabilities compensation for their functional limitation(s) due to a mental or physical impairment. Where Section 504 is concerned, accommodations are made to bring a student with a disability to the same starting point as a non-disabled student. Consequently, the accommodations defined in a Section 504 plan are those interventions that are over and above the accommodations available to all students.

Environmental Strategies

Provide a structured learning environment
Make separate "space" for different types of tasks
Possible adapting of non-academic times such as lunch, recess, and physical education
Change student seating
Utilize a study carrel
Alter location or personal or classroom supplies for easier access or to minimize distraction

Organizational Strategies

Model and reinforce organizational systems (i.e. color-coding)
Write out homework assignments, check student's recording of assignments
Tailor homework assignments toward student strengths
Set time expectations for assignments
Provide clues such as clock faces indicating beginning and ending times

Behavioral Strategies

Use behavioral management techniques consistently within a classroom and across classes
Implement behavioral/academic contracts
Utilize positive verbal and/or nonverbal reinforcements
Utilize logical consequences
Confer with the student's parents (and student as appropriate)
Establish a home/school communication system for behavior monitoring
Post rules and consequences for classroom behavior
Put student on daily/weekly progress report/contract
Reinforce self-monitoring and self-recording of behaviors

Presentation Strategies

Tape lessons so the student can listen to them again; allow students to tape lessons
Use computer-aided instruction and other audiovisual equipment
Select alternative textbooks, workbooks, or provide books on tape
Highlight main ideas and supporting details in the book
Provide copied material for extra practice (i.e. outlines, study guides)
Prioritize drill and practice activities for saliency
Vary the method of lesson presentation using multi-sensory techniques:

a) lecture plus overhead/board demonstration support

b) small groups required to produce a written product

c) large groups required to demonstrate a process

d) audio-visual (i.e. filmstrips, study prints) methods

e) peer tutors or cross-age tutors

f) demonstrations, simulations

g) experiments

h) games

1-to-1 instruction with other available adults
Ask student to repeat/paraphrase context to check understanding
Arrange for a mentor to work with student in his or her interest area or area of greatest strength
Provide peer tutoring
Simplify and repeat instructions about in-class and homework assignments
Vary instructional pace
Reinforce the use of compensatory strategies, i.e. pencil grip, mnemonic devices, “spell check”
Vary kind of instructional materials used
Assess whether student has the necessary prerequisite skills. Determine whether materials are appropriate to the student's current functioning levels
Reinforce study skill strategies (survey, read, recite, review)
Introduce definition of new terms/vocabulary and review to check for understanding
Be aware of student's preferred learning style and provide matching instruction materials

Evaluation Methods

Limit amount of material presented on a single page
Provide a sample or practice test
Provide for oral testing
Provide tests in segments so that student hands in one segment before receiving the next part
Provide personal copy of test tools and allow for color-coding/highlighting

Accommodation Examples for Specific Disabilities

Here are some examples of accommodations and services that might be considered for specific disability profiles. Please keep in mind that these examples are not intended to be all-inclusive or mandatory. Do not use these examples as a “checklist” as accommodations are to be made on a case-by-case basis specific to individual need. Please also remember that the mere presence of these conditions does not automatically qualify a student for a Section 504 plan. The disability must significantly limit one or more life functions before a 504 plan is to be considered. Additionally, this disability must impact the student so that he or she is not afforded access and benefit of programs and services equal to that of non-disabled students.

EXAMPLE: The student has severe allergic reactions to certain pollens and foods. For purposes of this example the condition substantially limits the major life activity of breathing and may interfere with the student's ability to get to school or participate once there.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Avoid allergy-causing substances: soap, weeds, pollen, food
Inservice necessary persons: dietary people, peers, coaches, laundry service people, etc.
Allow time for shots/clinic appointments
Use air purifiers
Adapt physical education curriculum during high pollen time
Improve room ventilation (i.e. when remodeling has occurred and materials may cause an allergy)
Develop health care and/or emergency plans
Address pets/animals in the classroom
Involve school health consultant in school related health issues
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects

EXAMPLE: A student with severe arthritis may have persistent pain, tenderness or swelling in one or more joints. A student experiencing arthritic pain may require a modified physical education program. For purposes of this example, the condition substantially limits the major life activity of performing manual tasks.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide a rest period during the day
Accommodate for absences for doctors' appointments
Provide assistive devices for writing (e.g. pencil grips, non-skid surface, typewriter/computer, etc.)
· Adapt physical education curriculum
Administer medication following medication administration protocols
Train student for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Arrange for assistance with carrying books, lunch tray, etc.
Provide book caddie
Implement movement plan to avoid stiffness
Provide seating accommodations
Allow extra time between classes
Provide locker assistance
Provide modified eating utensils
Develop health care plan and emergency plan
Provide for accommodations for writing tasks; a note taker, a computer or tape recorder for note-taking
Make available access to wheelchair/ramps and school van for transportation
Provide more time for massage or exercises
Adjust recess time
Provide peer support groups
Arrange for instructional aide support
Install handle style door knobs (openers)
Record lectures/presentations
Have teachers provide outlines of presentations
Issue Velcro fasteners for bags
Obtain padded chairs
Provide a more comfortable style of desk
Adjust attendance policy, if needed
Provide a shorter school day
Furnish a warmer room and sit student close to the heat
Adapt curriculum for lab classes
Supply an extra set of books for home use and keep a set at school
Let student give reports orally rather than in writing
Provide an awareness program for staff and students
Monitor any special dietary considerations
Involve school health consultants in school health related issues
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

EXAMPLE: A student has been diagnosed as having severe asthma. The doctor has advised the student not to participate in physical activity outdoors. For purposes of this example, the disability limits the major life activity of breathing.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Adapt activity level for recess, physical education, etc.
Provide inhalant therapy assistance
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Remove allergens (e.g. hair spray, lotions, perfumes, paint, latex)
Make field trips that might aggravate the condition non-mandatory and supplement with videos, audiotapes, movies, etc.
Accommodate medical absence by providing makeup work, etc.
Adjust for administration of medications
Provide access to water, gum, etc.
Adapt curriculum expectations when needed (i.e. science class, physical education, etc.)
Develop health care and emergency plans
Have peers available to carry materials to and from classes (e.g. lunch tray, books)
Provide rest periods
Make health care needs known to appropriate staff
Provide indoor space for before and after school activities
Have a locker location which is centralized and free of atmosphere changes
Adapt attendance policies, school day duration, or 180-day requirement, if needed
Place student in most easily controlled environment

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)
EXAMPLE: The student does not meet eligibility requirements under IDEA as emotionally disturbed, learning disabled or other health impaired. A doctor regards the student as having ADD, and for purposes of this example, the disability limits the major life activity of learning. The student, because of his disability, is unable to participate in the school's programs to the same degree as students without disabilities and therefore is substantially limited by the disability.

Possible Accommodations and Services:

Seat the student away from distractions and in close proximity to the teacher
State classroom rules, post in an obvious location and enforce consistently
Use simple, concise instructions with concrete steps
Provide seating options
Tolerate (understand the need) excessive movement
Provide a peer tutor/helper
Teach compensatory strategies
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Monitor for stress and fatigue; adjust activities
Adjust assignments to match attention span, etc.
Vary instructional pace
Vary instructional activities frequently
Provide supervision during transitions, disruptions, field trips
Model the use of study guides, organizing tools
Accommodate testing procedures; lengthy tests might be broken down into several shorter administrations
Provide counseling and prompt feedback on both successes and areas needing improvement
Initiate frequent parent communication
Establish a school/home behavior management program
Provide training for staff
Have the student use an organizer; train in organizational skills
Establish a nonverbal cue between teacher and student for behavior monitoring
Assign chores/duties around room/school
Adapt environment to avoid distractions
Reinforce appropriate behavior
Have child work alone or in a study carrel during high stress times
Highlight required or important information/directions
Provide a checklist for student, parents, and/or teacher to record assignments of completed tasks
Use a timer to assist student to focus on given task or number of problems in time allotted. Stress that problems need to be
done correctly.
Have student restate or write directions/instructions
Allow student to respond in variety of different modes (i.e. may place answers for tests on tape instead of paper)
Give student opportunity to stand/move while working
Provide additional supervision to and from school
Adapt student's work area to help screen out distracting stimuli
Grade for content integrity, and not just neatness/presentation
Schedule subjects which require greater concentration early in the day
Supply small rewards to promote behavior change
Avoid withholding physical activity as a negative reinforcer
Allow for periodic, frequent physical activity, exercise, etc.
Determine trigger points and prevent action leading to trigger points
Provide for socialization opportunities, such as circle of friends

Bipolar Disorder
EXAMPLE: The student was diagnosed as having a bipolar disorder, however the severity (frequency, intensity, duration considerations) of the condition did not qualify the student for IDEA. A properly convened 504 committee determined that the condition did significantly impair the major life activity of learning and fashioned a 504 plan for the student. Here are some possible accommodations for this scenario.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Break down assignments into manageable parts with clear and simple directions, given one at a time.
Plan advanced preparation for transitions.
Monitor clarity of understanding and alertness.
Allow most difficult subjects at times when student is most alert.
Provide extra time on tests, class work, and homework if needed.
Strategies in place for unpredictable mood swings.
Provide appropriate staff with training on bipolar disorder.
Create awareness by staff of potential victimization from other students.
Implement a crisis intervention plan for extreme cases where student gets out of control and may do something impulsive or dangerous.
Provide positive praise and redirection.
Report any suicidal comments to counselor/psychologist immediately.
Consider home instruction for times when the student’s mood disorder makes it impossible for him to attend school for an extended period.

EXAMPLE: A student with a long-term medical problem may require special accommodations. Such a condition as cancer may substantially limit the major life activities of learning and caring for oneself. For example, a student with cancer may need a class schedule that allows for rest and recuperation following chemotherapy.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Adjust attendance policies
Limit numbers of classes taken; accommodate scheduling needs (breaks, etc.)
Send teacher/tutor to hospital, as appropriate
Take whatever steps are necessary to accommodate student's involvement in extra-curricular activities if they are otherwise qualified
Adjust activity level and expectations in classes based on physical limitations; don't require activities that are too physically taxing
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Provide appropriate assistive technology
Provide dietary accommodations
Provide a private area in which to rest
Shorten school day
Arrange for home tutoring following treatment
Send additional set of texts and assignments to hospital schools
Tape lessons. Accept the fact that the lessons and content-area tests may not be appropriate; the student is learning many life lessons through this experience.
Adjust schedule to include rest breaks
Provide counseling; establish peer group support
Adapt physical education
Provide access to school health services
Provide awareness training to appropriate staff and students
Develop health care emergency plan to deal with getting sick at school
Offer counseling for death and dying to peers/teachers/staff
Furnish a peer tutor
Provide student with a student buddy for participation in sports
Initiate a free pass system from the classroom
Provide lessons using mastery learning techniques
Provide individual school counseling
Begin friendship groups for the student
Provide teachers with counseling, emphasizing positive attitudes
Have a health plan for care of mediport/any other intravenous lines and medical needs
Plan ongoing communication about school events
Notify parents of communicable diseases in school
Designate a person in school to function as liaison with parents as a means of updating changing health status

Cerebral Palsy
EXAMPLE: The student has serious difficulties with fine and gross motor skills. A wheelchair is used for mobility. For purposes of this example, the condition substantially limits the major life activity of walking. Cognitive skills are intact.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide assistive technology devices
Arrange for use of ramps and elevators
Allow for extra time between classes
Assist with carrying books, lunch trays, etc.
Adapt physical education curriculum
Provide for physical therapy as appropriate. Such therapy needs to relate directly to "life skills."
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distributed medications; monitor for side effects
Adapt eating utensils
Initiate a health care plan that also addresses emergency situations
Train paraprofessionals in the case of this student (i.e. feeding, diapering, transporting to and from the wheelchair)
Adapt assignments
Educate peers/staff with parent/student permission
Ensure that programs conducted in the basement or on second or third floor levels are accessible
Ensure that bathroom facilities, sinks and water fountains are readily accessible.
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning.

Chronic Infectious Diseases (i.e. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

EXAMPLE: The student frequently misses school and does not have the strength to attend a full day. For purposes of this example, the student has a record of a disability, which substantially limits the major life activities of learning and working. Please review applicable District policies.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Inservice staff and students about the disease, how it is transmitted and how it is treated. (Consult appropriate District policies)
Apply universal precautions
Administer medications following medication administration protocols, train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Adjust attendance policies
Adjust schedule or shorten day
Provide rest periods
Adapt physical education curriculum
Establish routine communication with health professionals, area nurse, and home
Develop health-care and emergency plan
Consult with doctor, parents, teachers, area nurse and administrators
Train appropriate teachers on medical/emergency procedures
Provide two-way audio/video link between home and classroom via computer, etc.
Arrange for an adult tutor at school or home
Adapt assignments and tests
Provide an extra set of textbooks for home
Provide staff training on confidentiality
Provide education and support for peers regarding issues of death and dying
Provide transportation to and from school if needed as a related service
Tape books or provide a personal reader
Arrange to communicate with a home computer with e-mail
Notify parents of communicable disease in the classroom
Arrange for participation in a support group
Provide for post-secondary employment transitions for secondary students
Foster supportive community attitudes regarding the District's need to provide education to HIV positive/AIDS students
Develop and promote a nondiscriminatory classroom climate and supportive student attitudes
Promote the most supportive, least restrictive educational program
Initiate a "Kids on the Block" AIDS program
Videotape classroom teaching
Provide a peer support group to encourage communication
Involve school health consultant in school-related health issues

Cystic Fibrosis
EXAMPLE: This student is a new enrollee at your school and has an extensive medical history. He has significant difficulty breathing and will often be absent due to respiratory infection. While medical needs can be easily documented on a health plan, his educational needs also need to be accommodated. For purposes of this example, learning is the major life activity that is substantially impaired.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Create a health care plan for management of acute and chronic phases
Promote good communication between parents, hospital, home and school on school assignments
Shorten the school day
Adapt physical education activities
Apply universal precautions, correct disposal of fluids
Recognize need for privacy for “good coughing”
Educate staff and peers

Deaf/Hearing Impairment
EXAMPLE: A student was diagnosed with a substantial hearing impairment at a very early age. Therefore, he has both a hearing loss and a mild speech impediment. He compensates through both lip reading and sign language. Academic abilities test in the average range.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Allow for written direction/instructions in addition to oral presentation
Ensure delivery of instruction facing the student to allow lip reading
Provide visual information as primary mode of instruction
Allow for provision of interpreter services
Install acoustical tile, carpeting
Seat in a location with minimal background noise
Provide paper and pencil/pen to write/draw requests when needed
Facilitate acquisition of TDDs and related assistive technology
Allow for extra time between classes
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

EXAMPLE: A sixth grader with juvenile diabetes requires accommodation to maintain optimal blood sugar. His mom provides the crackers and juice to be used at "break" time and before physical education class. She asks that teachers remind him to eat at a certain time of the morning if he does not pay attention to the beeper on his watch. The youngster is very self sufficient; while he is able to monitor his own blood sugar now, he prefers to do this privately. Therefore, mom asks that the equipment and a notebook/log be stored in a nearby file cabinet and the youngster be allowed to go into the hall with the equipment to check his blood sugar twice a day. She also asks that his teacher allow him to use the bathroom as needed.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
· Health care plan for management of condition in the school setting and in emergencies

· Educate staff to signs/symptoms of insulin reaction/hypoglycemia; hunger, shakiness, sweatiness, change in face color, disorientation, drowsiness Do not leave the child alone if he/she is feeling poorly; walk to the office or clinic with the student.

· Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects; communicate systematically and frequently with parents

· Adapt physical education activities

· Store equipment and documentation in a readily accessible location for student, parent and area nurse or clinic aid

· Accommodate food access/meal schedules rigorously

· Allow access to bathroom facilities

Drugs and Alcohol
EXAMPLE: The student has used drugs and alcohol for many years. This problem has affected the major life activities of learning and caring for oneself. The student is presently not using drugs or alcohol and is in a rehabilitation program. If the student is not using drugs or alcohol, he or she could qualify for accommodations or services under Section 504.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide copies of texts and assignments to treatment facility
Arrange for periodic home-school contacts
Establish daily/weekly assignments monitoring system
Communicate with treatment facility; pursue transition services available through the treatment facility
Provide/arrange for counseling
Establish peer support group
Dismiss from school for treatment without punitive measures
Ensure strong link with school counselor
Arrange for access to treatment at private or public facilities.
Integrate a student assistance program into the classroom
Inservice faculty/staff with parent/student permission
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning
Provide ongoing support around chemical dependency in conjunction with other agencies
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects

Emotionally Disturbed
EXAMPLE: An emotionally disturbed student may need an adjusted class schedule to allow time for regular counseling or therapy. For purposes of this example, the condition substantially limits the individual's major life activity of learning.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Maintain weekly/daily journals for self-recording of behavior
Establish home-school communication system
Schedule periodic meetings with home and treatment specialists
Provide carry-over of treatment plans into school environment
Assist with inter-agency referrals
Utilize behavior management programs
Develop contracts for student behavior
Post rules for classroom behaviors; teach expectations
Provide counseling, social skills instruction
Reinforce replacement behaviors
Educate other students/staff/school personnel
Foster carryover of treatment plans to home environment
Reinforce positive behavior
Schedule shorter study/work periods according to attention span capabilities
Be consistent in setting expectations and following up on reinforcements/consequences
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

EXAMPLE: A student who will urinate or defecate in clothes. Not to be confused with physical incontinence, but only to a needed behavior change (i.e. toilet training, bowel/bladder retraining).

Possible Accommodations:
Maintain low key responses
Have a change of clothes available at school in the clinic or alternative location
Plan a consistent response to events; send student to clinic or alternative location for clean-up and change of clothes; while wearing latex/rubber gloves, place soiled clothes in a plastic bag; call parent and make arrangements for soiled items to be returned home
Observe for consistent trigger events
Support bowel/bladder retraining program that is recommended by the physician

EXAMPLE: The student is on medication for seizure activity, but experiences several petit mal seizures each month. This condition substantially limits the major life activity of learning.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Call parent and document the characteristics of each seizure
Assess breathing after seizure
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Train staff and students and prepare an emergency plan
Anticipate recovery process should a seizure occur. Move seating/clear space during seizure. Do not insert objects into the student's mouth during seizure; administer no fluids if student is unconscious. Turn the unconscious student on his or her side to avoid aspiration of vomit. Provide rest time and return to academic considerations following seizure. Arrange a buddy system, especially for field trips
Avoid portable chalk boards or furniture that would topple over easily
Provide an alternative recess, adapt activities such as climbing and/or swimming
Plan for academic make-up work
Alter door openings to allow access from the outside (i.e. bathroom stall doors that swing both ways)
Observe for consistent triggers (e.g. smells, bright light, perfume, hair spray)
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

Hearing Impairment
EXAMPLE: A parent is hearing impaired and requests, access to school sponsored activities. The District makes accommodations by providing interpreter services for the parent to participate effectively in school-sponsored events or meetings about the student.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide an interpreter for those school events where accommodations may be necessary/are requested
Make alternative arrangements for home-school contacts/communication
Assist with locating peer or support groups
Use written notes for communication
Arrange with phone company for assistive devices on public phones
Provide information on assistive technology; acquire assistive equipment for school use
Provide in-house TDD or relay services to receive/communicate efficiently
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

Learning Disabilities
Individual profiles of learning strengths and weaknesses will vary. THE EXAMPLE: The student has a learning disability that impacts her ability to read. She has more difficulty with word decoding and spelling than reading comprehension. Thus, completing reading tasks is difficult and slow. She is currently a student receiving special education services.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide lower-readability materials covering course context
Provide extended time on tests
Arrange for student/volunteer readers
Provide information on accessing materials through recordings for the Blind and Dyslexic (i.e. books on tape)
Allow access to spell checkers and/or word processing
Provide information on accommodations for college-entrance/qualifying exams (i.e. PSAT)
Written directions in addition to oral
Clearly sequenced instruction
Visual graphs/charts/diagrams to support instruction
Provision of computer access
Seating toward the instructor
Support/suggestions relative to post-secondary/career options
Support in the use of organizational/time-management strategies
Support in the use of strategies to assist memory and problem-solving
Use of multi-sensory instructional methods (i.e. visual graphs and charts to accompany oral presentation)
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

EXAMPLE: The student has recently been diagnosed with leukemia and requires frequent hospitalization. The condition substantially limits the major life activity of learning and caring for oneself.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Involve area nurse in assessing current limitations and development of health plan
Provide homebound instruction if needed
Provide the student with an adjusted school day
Make needed accommodations during physical education/recess
Provide rest periods
Have medical services and medication available at school. Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Support the proper diet as per physical recommendation
With parent/student permission, have area nurse to educate teachers/staff/peers
Notify parents of existing communicable diseases at school (i.e. chicken pox, flu, strep throat, etc.)
Consult with medical staff about individual needs and/or concomitant factors

Orthopedically Impaired
EXAMPLE: The student has limited mobility and uses a wheelchair. This condition substantially limits the major life activity of walking.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Develop a health care and emergency plan
Implement an adaptive physical education program
Provide physical therapy at school
Correct problems with physical accessibility of facilities/pathways between buildings
Provide extra time to get to class
Supply a set of textbooks for home
Provide a copy of class notes from a peer
Practice emergency exit from school building
Ensure that access to programs held in the basement or on second or third floors is handicapped accessible
Ensure that bathroom facilities, water fountains, sinks, etc. are readily accessible
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

Student with Special Health Care Needs

EXAMPLE: The student has a special health care problem and requires clean intermittent catheterization twice each day. This procedure empties the bladder and helps prevent urinary tract infections and possible wetting. The school is required to provide trained personnel to perform the procedure or to provide the student a private location to perform the procedure. The condition is substantially limiting in the major life activity of caring for oneself.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Apply universal precautions
Provide trained personnel to perform special medical procedures. Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Provide student with private location and time to perform procedures
Involve area nurse, parents, teachers, and staff in periodic review
Allow preferential seating as indicated by need
Adapt recess, physical education, and transportation
Adjust classroom environment
Develop health care and emergency plan
If necessary, adapt attendance policy
Establish health alert system whereby every staff member involved with this student is aware of the health problem and of proper procedures
Provide a beeper/paging system for trained personnel
Make available homebound services/instruction if needed
Provide school counseling
Arrange for inservice to other students and staff with parent/student permission
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

Temporarily Disabled
EXAMPLE: A student was in an automobile accident and will be homebound and/or hospitalized for an extensive period. The student is considered temporarily disabled under Section 504 and should receive accommodations if this disability substantially limits a major life activity for the period of time it does so.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide duplicate sets of texts
Provide assignments to hospital school
Tape lessons
Provide homebound instruction
Schedule periodic home-school meetings
Arrange for student to leave class early to get to next class
Provide access to elevators
Excuse from or adapt physical education program
Arrange for a friend to assist student in getting from class to class, provide help with getting lunch tray
Establish a student support network
Provide a cordless telephone/beeper/pager
Provide an interactive system -- computer, e-mail, TV
Arrange for peer notes
Change seating arrangements to accommodate needs
Adapt assignments depending on disability
Allow more time for test completion
Allow shortened days; adjust attendance policy
Inservice staff and class and prepare an emergency care plan
Switch programs /classes to an accessible classroom on the main floor
Test verbally
Provide peer assistance for social involvement (i.e. to keep child informed of social activities)
Furnish life-skill assistance
Provide area nurse services

Tourette's Syndrome
EXAMPLE: The student exhibits inappropriate gestures and sounds in the classroom and hallways. The condition is substantially limiting in the major life activities of learning and caring for oneself.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide student with a means of catching up on missed lessons
Pair with a fellow student for study if indicated
Educate other students about associated outbursts/gestures/tics
Arrange for frequent parental interaction if indicated
Monitor administration/side effects of medication
Implement a behavior management program if indicated; cue student about inappropriate behaviors
Provide supervision for transition activities, during periods of "acting out"
Provide alternative/larger work-space or appropriate space for the child to act out if indicated
Teach compensatory strategies
Adapt assignments if indicated
Provide peer/teacher inservice with parent/student permission
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

Traumatic Brain Injury
EXAMPLE: The student sustained a brain injury in an automobile accident. Many academic and motor skills have been lost from the injury. The student does not qualify for special education under IDEA. The condition is substantially limiting to the major life activities of learning and performing manual tasks.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide extended school year/time
Furnish memory/organizational aids
Provide alternative testing
Initiate tutoring programs
Arrange an emergency plan
Monitor for seizure activity
Inservice staff and peers with student/parent permission
Monitor fatigue/mental exhaustion
Provide frequent short breaks during periods of intense concentration
Shorten the instructional day if indicated
Provide strategies for organizing/sequencing tasks
Provide post-secondary or vocational transition planning

EXAMPLE: The student is suspected of having active tuberculosis and must stay home until diagnostic tests are completed. The disease is no longer infectious, but the student is still weak. The condition is substantially limiting to the major life activity of learning.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide home tutor, as necessary
Inservice staff on the need for confidentiality to limit the stigmatization of him or her
Have the medical evaluator provide feedback to staff
Train for proper dispensing of medications; monitor and/or distribute medications; monitor for side effects
Inservice staff and students about the disease, how it is transmitted and how it is treated
Work with community agency or health department to provide medication and health education materials
Work with community agency or health department to test students and staff for exposure and/or infection and to determine when the student can return to school
Provide therapy and dispense medications if student is diagnosed with active TB; observed for side effects; arrange for parents to give medication on holidays and weekends

Visual Impairment
EXAMPLE: A student has a progressive medical disorder, which results in increasing loss of visual acuity. He now requires both enhanced lighting and enlarged print materials in order to read.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Preferential seating
Adaptations to the physical environment (i.e. consistent room arrangement, removal of obstacles to path of entry)
Copies of text/reading materials for adaptation
Modified writing tools (i.e. dark felt tip pens)
Perkins Brailler
Slate and stylus
Raised lines on writing paper
Dark lined writing paper
Lighting aids
Low vision devices including magnifiers, monocular glass, closed-circuit TV
Desktop slantboard
Enlarged print materials; textbooks, workbooks, worksheets
Braille textbooks/reading materials
Books on tape
Audiotape recorder, tapes and organizational location (headphones if needed)
Oral instead of written tests
Standardized tests (i.e. CAT, SAT) in large print or Braille
Tactile maps
Computer with enlarged print screen/adaptations
Speech synthesizer for input and output
Screen reading device
Optical Character Recognition System Scanner
Mobility devices (i.e. white cane)

Weight: Diagnosis of Obesity, Anorexia, and Bulimia

EXAMPLE: A student has an extreme eating disorder that may require special accommodations. Obesity may be considered a disability under Section 504 where it substantially impairs a major life activity or is regarded by others as doing so.

Possible Accommodations and Services:
Provide special seating modifications
Make dietary modifications per physician recommendation
Adapt physical education program per physician recommendation
Allow extra time to get to classes
Educate peers
Adapt rest rooms
Provide opportunities for socialization and peer counseling/interaction
Ensure privacy for self-care
Provide counseling involving the area nurse
Provide for elevator privileges per physician's recommendation
Arrange for counselor/area nurse to supervise peer counseling to deal with esteem issues, peer attitudes, teasing, etc.
Address busing concerns to ensure room on buses for seating
Arrange to provide opportunities for the individual to participate in intramural and extra-curricular events
Make any class location changes that may be needed


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