Central Auditory Processing Disorder:
When a hearing person is deaf or vice versa
Question: When is a hearing person like a deaf person?
Answer: When they have a condition known as
central auditory processing disorder (CAPD).
Pay Attention! Coping With Central Auditory Processing Disorder http://d93.k12.id.us/~sservice/Coping_With_CAPD.html Central auditory processing disorder occurs when the ear and the brain
do not coordinate fully. Assuming your child's hearing is good (and
this should be verified by an audiologist), auditory information
breaks down somewhere beyond the ear. The causes of CAPD are varied
and can include head trauma, lead poisoning, possibly chronic ear
infections - and unknown reasons. Because there are many different
possibilities - even combinations of causes - each child has to be
assessed on an individual basis.
WHAT IS AUDITORY PROCESSING DISORDER OR CAPD by Becca Lynn; parent of ASD child, CAPD sufferer http://www.bbbautism.com/auditory_processing_disorder.htm AUDITORY PROCESSING - is the ability to listen, comprehend, and
respond to information that we hear through our auditory channels.
This includes the detection of sound by the external ear and the
transmission of sound through the auditory pathways to the brain.
CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSING: WHAT IS IT? Parents' Educational Resource Center, Parent Journal http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/process_deficit/capd_perc.html Central auditory processing and how it relates to learning differences
is an issue of increasing concern among parents who contact our
Center. To better understand this subject, PERC asked professionals in
the field to respond to some key questions. Janet Gennai-Rizzi, M.A.,
CCC-Sp, has been a speech and language therapist in private practice
since 1984. She is a member of the Child Development Center of the
North Bay. Phyllis Burt, M.A., CCC-A, is a state licensed and
professional certified clinical audiologist. She has been specializing
in central auditory processing since 1983. She is currently the
director of audiology at Park Place Hearing Center in Petaluma.
CAPD (Central Auditory Processing Disorder) http://www.autistics.org/library/capd.html I have been diagnosed with CAPD (Central Auditory Processing
Disorder), which is a receptive language disorder which makes it
difficult to process sounds, particularly speech sounds. Some forms of
CAPD are referred to as "auditory dyslexia".
Central auditory processing disorder http://mimi.essortment.com/centralauditory_rjrj.htm Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is an impaired ability to
recognize and comprehend auditory information. People with this
disorder may have problems following directions and processing or
comprehending information they hear. Environments with acoustic
problems or background noise may exacerbate the problem.
LIVING AND WORKING WITH A CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSING DISORDER (CAPD) Judith W. Paton, M. A., Audiologist http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/process_deficit/living_working.html The easiest, quickest way to communicate is simply to say something
and then deal with the other person's reply, right? Right, unless your
listener has a CAPD (Central Auditory Processing Disorder), then your
remark might come through with certain words drowned out by other
noises, or with some words sounding like different words or as
meaningless strings of verbiage. You might begin to suspect this when
the other person's expression doesn't register understanding, or if
he,"answers the wrong question," or he asks you for additional
information which most people would have been able to infer from what
you just said.
Auditory Processing Disorder in Children: What Does It Mean? National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/auditory.asp Children with APD often do not recognize subtle differences between
sounds in words, even though the sounds themselves are loud and clear.
For example, the request "Tell me how a chair and a couch are alike"
may sound to a child with APD like "Tell me how a couch and a chair
are alike." It can even be understood by the child as "Tell me how a
cow and a hair are alike." These kinds of problems are more likely to
occur when a person with APD is in a noisy environment or when he or
she is listening to complex information.
Visual and Auditory Processing Disorders The National Center for Learning Disabilities http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/process_deficit/visual_auditory.html Visual and auditory processing are the processes of recognizing and
interpreting information taken in through the senses of sight and
sound. The terms, "visual and auditory processing" and "visual and
auditory perception", are often used interchangeably. Although there
are many types of perception, the two most common areas of difficulty
involved with a learning disability are visual and auditory
perception. Since so much information in the classroom and at home is
presented visually and/or verbally, the child with an auditory or
visual perceptual disorder can be at a disadvantage in certain
situations. The following information describes these two types of
disorders, their educational implications, some basic interventions
and what to do if there is a suspected problem.
Auditory Integration Training, A Checklist for Parents http://www.vision3d.com/adhd/parents.html This checklist is designed to help parents or teachers access whether
a child might be having problems with his or her auditory system
(hearing, auditory processing or auditory integration).
Auditory Integration Training, A Checklist for Adults http://www.vision3d.com/adhd/hearing.html This checklist is designed to help an adult access whether she might
be having problems with her auditory system.
CAPD (Central Auditory Processing Disorders) http://www.capdtest.com/capd.cfm A Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) is defined as an
observed deficiency in one or more of these behaviors: sound
localization and lateralization, auditory discrimination, auditory
pattern recognition, and temporal aspects of audition. These include,
temporal resolution, temporal masking, temporal integration, temporal
ordering, auditory performance decrements with competing acoustic
signals, and auditory performance decrements with degraded acoustic
signals. (ASHA, 1996)
CAPD Q & A with Dr. Jerome Schultz Jerome J. Schultz, Ph.D. http://www.nldline.com/capd2.htm In the public school system, is a Central Auditory Processing Disorder
(CAPD) a choice? Our son has CAPD due to severe Otitis Media early in
childhood. I worry that a lot of children are labeled LD that are not
receiving specific strategies for CAPD because it is a new discovery.
Not so much new -- just being recognized.
Strategies and Accommodations for Auditory Processing Difficulties Consider the following:
o Minimize auditory distractions
o Isolate in separate part of room
o Give preferential seating
o Use "pretuner" words such as "listen, read, begin"
o Ask student to repeat directions
o Use a visual approach to correct spelling errors
o Use flash cards for vocabulary and spelling words
o Use a high degree of visual cues and examples along with auditory
o Keep directions brief
o Explain the meaning of vocabulary, check for understanding
o Use visual maps
o Highlight important information using colored highlighters
o Present only one or two tasks or directions at one time
o Use semantic story organizers and story maps
o Provide an overview of the "big picture."
o Use manipulatives whenever possible
o Demonstrate learning through projects, skits, discussions
o Act things out, create physical representations or make models
o Present vocabulary after concrete presentation/example
o Give short breaks from listening
o Allow study buddy to interpret directions
o Use small groups to facilitate acquisition of knowledge
o Allow to doodle in order to listen
o Consider using a microphone/amplification system
o Give "alert" cues when you are about to deliver input instructions
o Strengthen sight vocabulary
o Ask short questions
o Give visual cues/aids whenever possible
o Have student paraphrase directions
o Increase length of orally presented material as student demonstrates
o Accept yes, no, maybe responses and increase length of response
o Teach vocabulary, idioms, sarcasm, etc.
o Teach paraphrasing, questioning, summarizing
o Select a peer scribe
o Vary pitch, tone, speed to help students listen closely
o Use overhead projector
o Develop use of consistent attention getting devices before giving an
o Use word processor with spell checker
o Use books on tape when reading
o Use note taker in class; tape lectures, write notes later
o Provide written directions
o Keep directions brief
o Write assignments down for student (peer or teacher)
o Have students underline words they believe are misspelled
o Check calendars before student leaves class
o Have student write directions and teacher or peer checks for
o Use highlighter during reading assignments
o Read test directions, circle key words
o Use data/information cards (e.g., for job applications)
o Teach SQ3R approach (skim reading, skim questions, read, recite,
o Use daily assignment calendar
o Teach how to develop and maintain an organized notebook to aide in
o Teach outlining techniques and cognitive mapping
o Practice cumulative reviewing
o Practice sequencing dates, parts of essay, steps in math problems,
o Use flash cards to study
o Have student write when memorizing
o Write directions given orally, teacher checks
o Teach differences between extraneous noises and what needs to be the
focus of attention
o Use frequent and tangible reinforcers
o Use ADD (Auditory Discrimination in Depth) program
o Teach visualizing and Verbalizing program
o Teach sound-symbol relationships
o Check for understanding in conversations
o Develop an individualized communication system (such as a private
signal) for use when the student is frustrated or needs assistance
o Teach the use of key words and phrases such as who, what, where,
when, why, and how much, therefore, in addition, consequently, next,
finally, in conclusion, etc.
o Teach ability to describe disability, how to ask for accommodations
o Avoid foreign languages
AUDITORY PROCESSING Auditory Processing involves the ability to segment, analyze, and
synthesize speech sounds. This type of processing deficit is often
present in students who have spelling difficulties, as spelling
requires phonemic segmentation (the ability to attend to the detailed
sequence of sounds in words). Also, students with poor phonemic
awareness are slow to develop word identification skill in reading. In
addition to affecting the acquisition of reading decoding and spelling
skill, severe auditory processing deficits may cause difficulty in
interpreting lectures, understanding oral directions, and perceiving
speech under distracting conditions.
Intervention strategies appropriate for a deficit in this area
Referral to the Speech/Language Clinician for a more comprehensive
Depending upon age, language, and reading achievement level, the
student may benefit from specific training in phonemic segmentation
and sound blending.
For young students, encourage the use of games that manipulate the
phonological structure of words, such as rhyming games and nursery
Develop skill in phonological awareness through counting activities
that progress from counting the number of words in a simple sentence,
to the number of syllables in a word, to the number of sounds within a
If the auditory processing deficits are not remediable, recommend a
nonphonic reading approach.
In severe cases, the student may need to be excused from foreign
language study in elementary school and, if possible, be waived from
the foreign language requirement at the secondary level.
Provide visual outlines and graphic organizers for tasks involving
Give clear, direct instructions for all tasks, limited in length and
Do not penalize the student for difficulties in reading decoding or
Allow extra time for reading and writing activities.
Emphasize sound/symbol associations in teaching decoding and spelling.
Provide study guides for listening activities.
Provide assistance with note taking.
Classroom Amplification Equipment Compiled by Jean Clements http://www.framingham.k12.ma.us/mccarthy/clements.htm We are all in agreement that for a child to do well in school, she
must be able to receive all auditory signals. If a child is known to
have a hearing loss, we are quick to provide special devices to make
the sound more audible or to provide special assistance to transform
the audible signal into a visual signal. However, what happens to the
average student in a typical classroom? It is assumed that all normal
hearing students can hear. It is also assumed that if a child passes a
standard hearing sensitivity test, she has no auditory difficulty.
Unfortunately, these are an incorrect assumption.
Home Page of Classroom Acoustics http://www.classroomacoustics.com/ This web site is a resource for those concerned with meeting new
standards for the acoustics of classrooms. It will be updated
frequently with current events and information of interest to parents,
educators, school planners, architects, school boards and others.
Learning Disorders and Home Schooling: Central Auditory Processing
Disorder by David Weathers http://www.lessontutor.com/dw2.html As home school parents, we have to know when we are in over our heads
and when to seek help. It wasn't easy for us, there was some pressure
to send him to a public school speech program, but we resisted (the
whole point of home schooling, for us, was to avoid the
institutionalization of traditional schools.) Despite skepticism, even
now, we see his progress and know that we made the right decision.
Auditory Processing Disorder in the
United Kingdom (APDUK) http://www.apduk.org/ Mission: To Promote a greater understanding about Auditory Processing
Disorder, and other related Invisible Disabilities amongst both the
General Public and the relavent Education and Health and Supportive
AuditoryProcessing Yahoo Group http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AuditoryProcessing/ This list welcomes questions, comments, and the sharing of information
about APD and related concerns. The CAPD Listervs: Dr. Jay Lucker moderates the CAPD List and the
CAPD-PRO List http://maelstrom.stjohns.edu/CGI/wa.exe?SUBED1=capd&A=1 The CAPD List is open to anyone with an interest in central auditory
processing disorders. Join or Leave the CAPD list. The Archives of
CAPD@MAELSTROM.STJOHNS.EDUcan be searched by the CAPD list's
subscribers. Messages posted to the list from February 1996 through
the present are archived. The CAPD-PRO list limited to professionals.
Join or Leave the CAPD-PRO List The Archives of the CAPD-PRO list can
be viewed without subscribing to the list. CAPD: From the Heart Chat/Support Group http://www.angelfire.com/fl2/capd/chat.html This chat/support group is dedicated to the families and friends of
anyone affected by Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD).
Hopefully by joining this chat/support group you will find the answers
you are looking for about CAPD, a friendly person to talk to or
perhaps someone to listen. This chat/support group is open at all
times to anyone who wants to stop in and visit. Below there is also a
list of scheduled chats events.
Auditory Processing Disorder: He Can
Hear You, But it Makes No Sense
http://www.education.com/magazine/article/Auditory_Processing_Disorder/ Ben was a happy, playful baby—a delight to his whole family. But
by the time he turned three, they could see that something was
wrong. He couldn’t seem to make sense of people’s sentences; and in
turn, he barely spoke words at all. And yet medical tests showed
that his hearing was normal!
Central Auditory Processing Disorders http://www.earaces.com/CAPD.htm CAPDs are often characterized by a child having difficulty
understanding speech or instructions in the presence of normal hearing
sensitivity. They usually are noticed when the child is in an
atmosphere of sensory overload. Too much is happening around the child
and so the child cannot "process" the same information that other
children process. This also can occur when the "redundancy" of the
auditory information is reduced: when speakers cannot be seen, when
the normal frequency content of speech is reduced, or especially when
an ear infection produces a mild and temporary hearing loss.
Central%20Auditory%20Processing%20Disorders/Auditory%20Processing%20Disorders Auditory processing abilities develop at different rates in different
children. I tell parents to think of emerging auditory processing
skills in the same way they think of other aspects of a child's
development: some toddlers have greater verbal skills at an early age
and others better motor coordination. However, by age six or seven
years, these abilities have more or less ''equalized'' among
typically-developing children. Even so, there will be kids with
strengths and weaknesses in various areas, and parents should be aware
of milestones against which to gauge individual progress.
Treatment For Central Auditory Processing Problems American Speech-Language-Hearing Association http://www.healthtouch.com/bin/EContent_HT/showAllLfts.asp?lftname=ASLHA024&cid=HT One approach focuses on training certain auditory and listening skills
such as auditory discrimination (e.g. telling the difference between
peas and bees), localization of sound, sequencing sounds, or
identifying a target sound in a noisy background.
Central Auditory Processing Disorders: An Overview of Assessment and
Management Practices Mignon M. Schminky and Jane A. Baran, Department of Communication
Disorders, University of Massachusetts http://www.tr.wou.edu/tr/dbp/pdf/sept99.pdf Hearing is a complex process that is often taken for granted. As
sounds strike the eardrum, the sounds (acoustic signals) begin to
undergo a series of transformations through which the acoustic signals
are changed into neural signals. These neural signals are then passed
from the ear through complicated neural networks to various parts of
the brain for additional analysis, and ultimately, recognition or
comprehension. For most of us, when someone talks about hearing
abilities, we think primarily of the processing that occurs in the
ear; that is, the ability to detect the presence of sound. Likewise,
when someone is described as having a hearing loss, we assume that
this individual has lost all or part of the ability to detect the
presence of sound. However, the ability to detect the presence of
sounds is only one part of the processing that occurs within the
auditory system. There are many individuals who have no trouble
detecting the presence of sound, but who have other types of auditory
difficulties (e.g., difficulties understanding conversations in noisy
environments, problems following complex directions, difficulty
learning new vocabulary words or foreign languages) that can affect
their ability to develop normal language skills, succeed academically,
or communicate effectively. Often these individuals are not recognized
as having hearing difficulties because they do not have trouble
detecting the presence of sounds or recognizing speech in ideal
listening situations. Since they appear to “hear normally,” the
difficulties these individuals experience are often presumed to be the
result of an attention deficit, a behavior problem, a lack of
motivation, or some other cause. If this occurs, the individual may
receive medical and/or remedial services that do not address the
underlying “auditory” problem.
Subprofiles of Central Auditory Processing Disorders by Teri James Bellis, Northwestern University http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/process_deficit/subprofiles.pdf It is this author’s contention that the difficulty in defining CAPD
stems directly from the fact that, like all other learning, language,
and communicative disorders, CAPDs are inherently heterogeneous in
nature and, thus, elude precise definition. When one speaks of
learning disabilities or language disorders, it is accepted that
different permutations exist that result in vastly different
behavioral manifestations, and that management will be directed toward
the specific type of disorder and the individualized behavioral
sequelae associated with the deficit. There is no reason to believe
that CAPDs are any different. Thus, perhaps Katz’s (1992) definition
of CAP as “what we do with what we hear” was not so far off, after
Central Auditory Test Battery http://www.engr.colostate.edu/ece/Research/cad/index.html The central auditory test battery is very different from those used
during traditional audiometric testing. Most tests of central auditory
function involve speech stimuli that have been modified in some
fashion to make their understanding more challenging. The goal in all
evaluations is to identify a lack of ability in the processing of
auditory information which would account for the individual's
communication problems in his/her everyday listening environment.
Recognizing and Treating Children with Central Auditory Processing
Disorders Maxine L. Young, M.S., CCC-A/SLP, FAAA http://www.scilearn.com/alldocs/mktg/10035-952MYoungCAPD.pdf Children and adults who have central auditory processing disorder
(CAPD) are a heterogeneous group of people who have difficulty using
auditory information to communicate and learn. CAPD is not a specific
problem or disease; rather it is a set of problems that occur in
different kinds of listening tasks. Often children with CAPD are first
diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or
Central Auditory Nervous System Function http://www.engr.colostate.edu/ece/Research/cad/caplynx.html#cansf A thorough understanding of the function of the central auditory
nervous system (CANS) is critical so that proper diagnosis and
management can be implemented. Each of the human senses have special
areas of representation in the brainstem and brain. The auditory
system provides perhaps the most important of those sensory systems
since it affords us with a means of verbal communication.
term=%20%22Learning%2BDisability%22 Underlying APD is a deficit observed in one or more of the auditory
processes responsible for generating the auditory evoked potentials
and the following behaviors: sound localization and lateralization;
auditory discrimination; auditory pattern recognition; temporal
aspects of audition, including temporal resolution, temporal masking,
temporal integration, and temporal ordering; auditory performance with
competing acoustic signals; and auditory performance with degraded
(QUIZ) Does Your Child Have CAPD? http://www.familyeducation.com/quiz/0,1399,23-25797,00.html Is your child struggling in school? Does he have poor listening skills
and difficulty following directions or understanding speech? Is he
inattentive? Perhaps he has a central auditory processing disorder.
Answer these questions to determine if you should have him evaluated.
But remember, kids naturally exhibit many of these characteristics
some of the time. It's when they consistently exhibit these signs that
you need to take action.
What iS the Difference Between CAPD and AD/HD? by Keri Spielvogle, M.C.D., CCC-SLP http://www.superduperinc.com/newsletters/42_capAdHd.pdf Recently, there have been a lot of questions regarding the difference
between two commonly diagnosed childhood disorders, CAPD (Central
Auditory Processing Disorder) and AD/HD (Attention
Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder). When should the child receive speech
therapy? How can I help this child? What exactly are the symptoms of
each? Am I doing the right thing?
"Words Fail Me": How Language Works and
What Happens When It Doesn't by Priscilla L. Vail http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN%3D1567620620/ldonlinelearningA/002-1450893-7312823 Midwest Book Review: Parents, educators and general-interest readers
will relish a fine book which surveys how language develops in kids.
Why isn't language developing for so many? This explores links between
reading, writing, listening and speaking, revealing how these are
learned and what happens in the process breaks down at various stages.
When the Brain Can't Hear : Unraveling the Mystery of Auditory
Processing Disorder by Teri James Bellis (Author) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0743428633/qid=1059057986/sr=2-1/ref=sr_2_1/002-1450893-7312823 APD has been called the auditory equivalent of dyslexia, and its
debilitatiting effects cross all ages, genders, and races. APD can
cause children to fail in school and adults to suffer socially and in
their careers, but until now, there has been little information
Written by Dr. Teri James Bellis, one of the world's foremost
authorities on APD, this is the first book on the subject that is
completely accessible to the public. Through helpful checklists and
case studies, you'll finally discover the answers you need, as well as
proven strategies for living with APD. Comprehensive and powerfully
prescriptive, this book contains vital information for anyone who
suffers from this serious disorder.
Assessment and Management of Central Auditory Processing Disorders in
the Educational Setting: From Science to Practice by Teri James Bellis http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1565936280/ref=ase_ldonlinelearningA/002-1450893-7312823?v=glance&s=books Provides the reader with an interpretation of central auditory
processing disorders that is both scientific and clinical. The
information is presented in an easy to read and understand format.
This book is ideal for practicing clinicians who are looking for a
review of this complex subject. The text is clearly presented to aid
the learning process, with learning objectives set out at the
beginning of each chapter, and the inclusion of lots of tables, key
notes boxes and highlighted sentences.
1059026648/sr=1-2/ref=sr_1_2/002-1450893-7312823?v=glance&s=books Ben was a bright, happy little boy. Yet he was easily distracted, he
wouldn't make eye contact, and he couldn't comprehend the simplest
things said to him. At age three he still hadn't started talking.
Finally, Karen Foli knew she had to act, and she took her son to a
speech and hearing clinic. What the clinicians reported chilled her:
Ben's speech and language were delayed by one to two years. Testing
results and speech therapists suggested problems that included the
words "probably retarded and perhaps autistic." But Karen, trusting
her mother's intuition, knew that Ben was intelligent and that he was
frustrated by his inability to communicate, so she continued to try to
help her son. She discovered that he possessed the hallmarks of
auditory processing disorder, the aural equivalent of dyslexia. Like
Sound Through Water is the story of Karen's struggle to get Ben the
help he needed to learn the most basic skill of all: to communicate
with the world. She ran the gauntlet of medical disbelievers and
pediatric therapists who refused to understand the very new Žndings of
auditory processing disorder. Even her husband, a psychiatrist
specializing in children's afžictions, had never heard of APD. Despite
this, he kept a steadfast faith in his son. Now, after years of
intensive treatment for APD, Ben is an academically successful,
hardworking little boy with a bright future to look forward to. Like
Sound Through Water is a testament to a mother's love and her devotion
to her son's care; it is also an instructive journey for those who are
discovering the world of APD and a guidebook to negotiating the land
mines of its treatment. Above all, it is a beautifully written tale of
hope and optimism. –
Software: SoundSmart® by Joseph A. Sandford Ph.D. & Ann Turner, M.D. http://www.mindfitness.com/smart/sndsmart.htm SoundSmart was designed by a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist
to help improve phonemic awareness, listening skills, working memory,
mental processing speed, and self-control. These game-like
brain-training exercises speak to the user in a realistic human voice,
making the individual feel as if they are playing a real person who
encourages, praises, and challenges them to do their best.
The Listening Program TM http://rmlearning.com/auditoryprocessing.htm The Listening ProgramTM is a sound stimulation auditory therapy
program consisting of eight specially developed Compact Discs (CDs)
conveniently bound together with the 9-part Instructional Guidebook
and Listening Journal. Each CD contains four progressive segments that
are 15 minutes each. Re-arranged, specially engineered classical music
and nature sounds comprise the listening content. The arrangements are
treated with "filtering" and "gating" at gradually increasing levels
through the course of the eight CD series. These techniques are the
basis for the therapy process. The basic listening schedule calls for
two 15-minute segments of headphone listening per day, 5 days a week,
for a period of 8 weeks. It can be completed at home, at school, or in
the office. In addition, the set includes one additional CD called
"THE SAMPLER," which introduces the benefits and beauty of the
psychoacoustically-refined music of Arcangelos in 14 selections culled
from THE SOUND HEALTH SERIES TM .
AUDITORY PROCESSING DISORDER DOWN
http://www.angelfire.com/home/capddownunder/ On the 13th March 2001 my 11 year old son Andrew was diagnosed
with Auditory Processing Disorder, after about 9 years of searching we
finally had a diagnosis, but where to from here with limited knowledge
of this disorder as well as limited resources available in Australia.