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Last Updated: 11/20/2017
 

Disability Information - Speech & Language Impairments including information on Apraxia and Dyspraxia

 

General Information

Apraxia Information

Education & Classroom Accommodations

Michigan Resources, Support Groups, Listservs & Websites

National Resources & Websites

Articles Related to this Disability

Medical Information

Books & Videos

FACT SHEET: Telephone Access for People with Speech Disabilities

 

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 General Information

 

DEFINITION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DISORDERS

http://www.kidneeds.com/diagnostic_categories/articles/speechlanguagedefinition.htm

Speech and language disorders refer to problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function. These delays and disorders range from simple sound substitutions to the inability to understand or use language or use the oral-motor mechanism for functional speech and feeding. Some causes of speech and language disorders include hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, mental retardation, drug abuse, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, and vocal abuse or misuse. Frequently, however, the cause is unknown.

Incidence

More than one million of the students served in the public schools’ special education programs in the 1998-99 school year were categorized as having a speech or language impairment. This estimate does not include children who have speech/language problems secondary to other conditions such as deafness. Language disorders may be related to other disabilities such as mental retardation, autism, or cerebral palsy. It is estimated that communication disorders (including speech, language, and hearing disorders) affect one of every 10 people in the United States.

Characteristics

A child's communication is considered delayed when the child is noticeably behind his or her peers in the acquisition of speech and/or language skills. Sometimes a child will have greater receptive (understanding) than expressive (speaking) language skills, but this is not always the case.

Speech disorders refer to difficulties producing speech sounds or problems with voice quality. They might be characterized by an interruption in the flow or rhythm of speech, such as stuttering, which is called dysfluency. Speech disorders may be problems with the way sounds are formed, called articulation or phonological disorders, or they may be difficulties with the pitch, volume or quality of the voice. There may be a combination of several problems. People with speech disorders have trouble using some speech sounds, which can also be a symptom of a delay. They may say "see" when they mean "ski" or they may have trouble using other sounds like "l" or "r". Listeners may have trouble understanding what someone with a speech disorder is trying to say. People with voice disorders may have trouble with the way their voices sound.

A language disorder is an impairment in the ability to understand and/or use words in context, both verbally and nonverbally. Some characteristics of language disorders include improper use of words and their meanings, inability to express ideas, inappropriate grammatical patterns, reduced vocabulary and inability to follow directions. One or a combination of these characteristics may occur in children who are affected by language learning disabilities or developmental language delay. Children may hear or see a word but not be able to understand its meaning. They may have trouble getting others to understand what they are trying to communicate.

Educational Implications

Because all communication disorders carry the potential to isolate individuals from their social and educational surroundings, it is essential to find appropriate timely intervention. While many speech and language patterns can be called "baby talk" and are part of a young child's normal development, they can become problems if they are not outgrown as expected. In this way an initial delay in speech and language or an initial speech pattern can become a disorder which can cause difficulties in learning. Because of the way the brain develops, it is easier to learn language and communication skills before the age of 5. When children have muscular disorders, hearing problems or developmental delays, their acquisition of speech, language and related skills is often affected.

Speech-language pathologists assist children who have communication disorders in various ways. They provide individual therapy for the child; consult with the child's teacher about the most effective ways to facilitate the child's communication in the class setting; and work closely with the family to develop goals and techniques for effective therapy in class and at home. Technology can help children whose physical conditions make communication difficult. The use of electronic communication systems allow nonspeaking people and people with severe physical disabilities to engage in the give and take of shared thought.

Vocabulary and concept growth continues during the years children are in school. Reading and writing are taught and, as students get older, the understanding and use of language becomes more complex. Communication skills are at the heart of the education experience. Speech and/or language therapy may continue throughout a student's school year either in the form of direct therapy or on a consultant basis. The speech-language pathologist may assist vocational teachers and counselors in establishing communication goals related to the work experiences of students and suggest strategies that are effective for the important transition from school to employment and adult life.

Communication has many components. All serve to increase the way people learn about the world around them, utilize knowledge and skills, and interact with colleagues, family and friends.

 

http://www.afasic.org.uk/m_speechlang.htm


Some children do not develop speech and language as expected. They may experience difficulties with any or all aspects of speech and language - from moving the muscles which control speech to the ability to understand or use language at all. These difficulties can range from the mild to the severe and long-term.

Sometimes these difficulties are unrelated to any other difficulty or disorder - they are therefore said to be specific language difficulties. Some children may have both a specific language difficulty and other disabilities.

Education and participation in society depend upon the ability to communicate. It is vital that children with speech and language impairments are offered comprehensive help as early as possible.

 

Different forms of speech and language impairment

There are different areas of language learning - and so there are different forms of language impairment. Areas of difficulty may be:

 

speech apparatus - the mouth, tongue, nose, breathing and how they are coordinated and operated by muscles

phonology - the sounds that make up language

syntax or grammar - the way that words and parts of words combine in phrases and sentences

semantics - the meaning of sentences, words, and bits of words (semantic and pragmatic disorders)

pragmatics - how language is used in different situations and how feelings are conveyed (semantic and pragmatic disorders)

intonation and stress (prosody) - the rhythm and music of the way we speak

 

Within these areas some children may have difficulties in understanding language (receptive difficulties), some in using language (expressive difficulties), and some in both understanding and using language. 

 

will I grow out of it?

http://www.blankees.com/baby/speech/lan05.htm

Milestones and Warning Signs for Speech and Language Development.

 

Normal Speech Development

http://members.tripod.com/Caroline_Bowen/acquisition.html

THE GRADUAL ACQUISITION OF THE SPEECH SOUND SYSTEM - Anyone who has been around children who are under 5 years of age will know that their speech sounds are not pronounced correctly all the time. In fact small children's speech can be quite difficult to understand because their sound system is not yet organized like adult speech.

 

Frequently Asked Questions

http://www.speechdelay.com/testrosefaqs.htm

 

Top 10 Things you should know . . . about children with Specific Language Impairment

http://merrill.ku.edu/IntheKnow/sciencearticles/SLIfacts.html

Specific Language Impairment has been actively studied for more than 40 years. Language acquisition is the primary area of concern as the child grows and develops. There are no obvious related causes such as hearing loss or low IQ. The condition appears in young children and is known to persist into adulthood. Although the causes are unknown, current research focuses on possible inherited tendencies. Early identification and intervention are considered best practices, in order to minimize possible academic risks.

 

Speech and Language: Developmental Milestones

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/milestones.html

 

Children with Communication Disorders

http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/communication.html

What is Meant by "Communication Disorders"?

 

Conversation Guide for Older Children

by James D. MacDonald

http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/conversing.html

For me, conversations are the best part of my life. That's when I enjoy people and learn the most. Here are a few things I've learned to make conversations improve my life.

 

Children's Speech Sound Disorders: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Caroline Bowen

http://members.tripod.com/Caroline_Bowen/phonol-and-artic.htm

 

What is Cued Speech?

New England Cued Speech Services

http://web7.mit.edu/CuedSpeech/

 

Statistics on Voice, Speech, and Language

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/vsl.asp

 

What is classed as a speech and language difficulty?

http://www.inclusive.co.uk/support/afasic.shtml

As many as 250,000 children under 5 - and a similar number of school age - have a speech and language impairment. For some, this is a delay - their language is developing, but more slowly than usual. In some cases, this may be connected with 'glue ear' in early childhood.

 

Semantic-pragmatic disorders

http://www.afasic.org.uk/m_semantic.htm

Children with semantic difficulties struggle to understand the meaning of sentences or words. Children with pragmatic difficulties struggle to use language socially.

 

Help for Speech and Language Delayed Children

http://www.afasic.org.uk/f_speech.htm

Children with speech and language impairments need to be taught the speech, language and social communication skills which other children learn naturally. The best results are achieved if such extra help is introduced as early as possible.

 

All about Speech and Language Disorders- a Guide for Parents

http://www.speechnlanguage.org.uk/allabout.asp

 

Speech and Language Problems

Doreen B. Greenstein, Ph.D., Developmental Psychologist, Cornell University Extension Service

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/human/pubs/nc17.html

As a child care provider, one of the most frequent "special needs" that you are likely to encounter is a child with a speech or language impairment. This is an area in which you, as child care provider, can have a positive impact.

 

Talking With a Child Who Stutters

by Daniel DeJoy, Ph.D.

http://www.cmi.k12.il.us/~inglemjo/flunarts.html

The way parents communicate with their child is very important. Most parents talk with youngsters in a way that helps them to pay attention, understand what is said and use what they have heard. Parents can give extra help to a child who stutters. The child who has difficulty learning to talk needs more patience and encouragement. But the results are well worth it!

 

ARE TWINS DELAYED IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT?

prepared by Jennifer Ganger

http://web.mit.edu/jganger/Public/delaylit.html 

 

Children with Communication Disorders

Kid Source Online

http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/language_disorders.html

The term COMMUNICATION DISORDERS encompasses a wide variety of problems in language, speech, and hearing. Speech and language impairments include articulation problems, voice disorders, fluency problems (such as stuttering), aphasia (difficulty in using words, usually as a result of a brain injury), and delays in speech and/or language. Speech and language delays may be due to many factors, including environmental factors or hearing loss.

 

Speech Language Pathology World

http://www.rehabworld.com/rwstdex.htm

Looking for the latest information about a specific topic in health care? Well it is RehabWorld To The Rescue! Our staff has surfed the web to its outer limits in search of health care information from A to Z. So, if you are conducting research, or just wanting to stay on top of your career, Look it up in the RehabWorld Health Care Library!

 

Speech Paths

http://www.speechpaths.com/

Speech Paths is a speech pathology community resource providing resources and information to speech language pathologists and  related medical specialties including audiology, occupational therapy, physical therapy, respiratory therapy and dysphagia clinicians.

 

Voice, Speech, and Language

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/

 

Speech-Language Pathology .org

http://www.speech-languagepathologist.org/

 

Speech Pathology Online

http://www.speechpathology.com/

 

CAINT Information Leaflet

http://indigo.ie/~caint/caint_information_leaflet.htm

A Support Group for Speech & Language Impaired Children.

 

Helping Parents Out: Specific language impairment, or childhood neurological language disorder

http://www.fcppq.qc.ca/form_perf/aide_parents/2000/2000_03_e.htm

SLI is a severe language development disorder of neurological origin. The term is often used interchangeably with "audimutism," "congenital aphasia," or "developmental aphasia.”

 

The Cherub Foundation

http://www.cherab.org

 

Speech or Language Impairments and Family Child Care

Doreen B. Greenstein, Ph.D., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

http://www.canr.uconn.edu/ces/child/newsarticles/FCC633.html

As a child care provider, one of the most frequent "special needs" that you are likely to encounter is a child with a speech or language impairment. As a family child care provider you can have a very positive impact on speech and language development by providing an enriched language environment.

 

Speech and Language Terms and Abbreviations

ONTARIO ASSOCIATION FOR FAMILIES OF CHILDREN WITH COMMUNICATION DISORDERS

http://www.oafccd.com/factshee/fact59.htm

 

Pragmatics, Socially Speaking

http://www.asha.org/speech/development/pragmatics.cfm

A child may pronounce words clearly, have a large vocabulary, use long, complex sentences and correct grammar, and still have a communication problem -- if he or she has not mastered the rules for appropriate social language known as pragmatics.

 

Apraxia Kids

http://www.apraxia-kids.org/

Apraxia-KidsSM Internet Resources - your online source for reliable and comprehensive information about Childhood Apraxia of Speech* for families, professionals and all those who care about a child with apraxia.

 

Speech Teach UK

http://www.speechteach.co.uk/

A web site for parents and professionals supporting children with speech difficulties.

 

Parent Information - Tips and Hints

http://www.speechteach.co.uk/p_resource/parent/tipsandhints.htm

 

Speech and Language Development

http://www.cleft.org/development.htm

The role of the speech pathologist on the craniofacial team is to provide the parents with the appropriate information regarding speech and language development and determine the child's competency of these skills.

 

Language-Based Learning Disabilities

ASHA.ORG

http://www.asha.org/speech/disabilities/Language-Based-Learning-Disabilities.cfm

Language-based learning disabilities interfere with age-appropriate reading, spelling, and/or writing. This disorder does not impair intelligence; in fact, most people diagnosed with learning disabilities possess average to superior intelligence. Learning disabilities are caused by a difference in brain structure that is present at birth, is often hereditary, and often related to specific language problems.

 

Speech and Voice Disorders

http://www.methodisthealth.com/otolaryn/speech.htm

Speech is a complex process that starts with muscle movement, which involves:

  • phonation (voice)

  • respiration (breathing process)

  • articulation (throat, palate, tongue, lips, and teeth)

 

Guide to Your Child's Symptoms - Speech Development

American Academy of Pediatrics

http://www.aap.org/pubserv/speech.htm

In evaluating how well a child speaks, it's important to distinguish between speech and language. Speech is the production of understandable sounds, whereas language is the underlying mental function and includes both expressive (speaking) and receptive (understanding) speech.

 

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 Education & Classroom Accommodations

 

Reading research has repeatedly pointed to the importance of a broad range of language skills as critical to reading success.

Speech and language disorders and their effect on learning
http://www.stcatherines.org.uk/SALT/salt_detail.htm

Educational Strategies
http://www.do2learn.com/areasofconcern/disabilities/speech.htm#
1. Listen for meaning and respond to content; do not criticize or call attention to speech dysfluencies.
2. Allow the person to finish his thought; refrain from filling in words of your own.
3. Ask questions so they can be answered with a few words; work toward more detailed responses.
4. Read aloud; point out rhyming words and repetitive sounds.
5. Create opportunities for conversation; designate special times to talk about the day's activities; make choices about food or activities; discuss a favorite book or game.
6. Teach the meaning of new words; use multiple concrete examples; explain how the same word can be used in different situations.

Pragmatic Language Tips
ASHA.org
http://www.asha.org/speech/development/Pragmatic-Language-Tips.cfm
There are several ways parents and teachers can help children use language appropriately in social situations. Social language use is known as pragmatics. Some general suggestions are provided to help children develop skills in three major pragmatic areas. Although suggestions are geared primarily for preschool children, they can be modified for use with other children as well.

Speech Therapy..... Games and activities
http://www.speechteach.co.uk/p_resource/speech/speech_intro.htm
The following pages contain information about games that can be played as part of your child's speech therapy.

General Education
http://www.speechteach.co.uk/p_resource/gen_ed/gen_ed_intro.htm
General educational resources including reading, writing and mathematics activities. Many of these are particularly suitable for young children and children with learning difficulties.

English Language Development with Word Games
http://www.nanana.com/languagedev.html

What is the Speech and Language Therapy?
http://www2.istp.org/Specialists/SpeechTherapist/English/speechtherapy2.html
The Speech and Language Pathologist (SLP) is concerned with communication and language, and treats all disorders of speech, voice, spoken and written language of children, adolescents, adults and the elderly. The speech and language pathologist is the professional responsible for the prevention, assessment, treatment and scientific study of human communication and associated disorders. In this context, communication encompasses all those processes associated with the comprehension and production of spoken and written language, as well as appropriate forms of non-verbal communication.

Helping Children with Communication Disorders in the Schools-Speaking, Listening, Reading, & Writing
http://www.asha.org/speech/development/schools_faq.cfm

 

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 Michigan Resources, Support Groups, Listservs & Websites

 

MI Bridges4kids Featured Resource: Kaufman Children’s Center - Provides specialized speech and language therapy, and occupational therapy and sensory integration services. Therapies offered include: Beckman Oral Motor Program, Craniosacral Therapy, Fast ForWord Family of Computer Programs, Handwriting Without Tears, Home-Based Applied Verbal Behavior Intensive Program, Interactive Metronome, Kaufman Method for Childhood Apraxia, LINKS to Language, Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), Reading/Complete Literacy Program, Relationship Development Intervention (RDI), Sensory Integration Therapy, Social Language Skills Groups, Talk Tools Oral Motor Program, and Therapeutic Listening.

 

Michigan Speech/Language Resource: Will your child make the grade this year? - If not, the University of Michigan's Center for Development of Language & Literacy (UCLL) can provide innovative language, learning and literacy programs to help guide them to academic success.  For more than 60 years, UCLL has provided intensive language therapy for children ages 3 - 17. All of UCLL’s programs are conducted by Masters-level speech-language clinicians.  Click here to learn more about programs available at UCLL (pdf, 54kb).

 

MICHIGAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION
http://www.michiganspeechhearing.org/
 

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 National Resources & Websites

 

Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Open Web Directory Project - The SLP/AUD Open Directory Project is a link directory that is managed by Speech Language Pathologists. It's goal is to create a source for all possible links relating to Speech Language Pathology and Audiology.
 

Speech-Pathology.org is a online community dedicated for Speech Therapy idea resources (parents and individual). Speech Therapist/Pathologist career, license, and school info. Forum, publications, resources and jobs links for Speech Therapists.

 

The Hanen Centre - A recognized innovator in family-focused early language intervention programs and learning resources for parents and professionals around the world The basic notion that launched The Hanen Centre is quite simple – parents can be their child’s language facilitator if they learn how. After all, it is parents who have the strongest bond with their children and who have many opportunities to interact with them every day. The beauty of the Hanen approach is that parents can help their children learn to communicate during typical, daily situations such as going to the park or having a snack. Once parents know how to turn everyday situations into opportunities for language learning, speech-language therapy for children in need is suddenly no longer limited to one or two hours per week with a speech-language pathologist.

 

Power Stuttering Center - Provides information on speech pathology, stuttering therapy, and the SpeechEasy Device for Stuttering.
 

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)
http://www.asha.org
Professional society for audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and speech, language, and hearing specialists. Factsheet topics include communication disorders and stuttering.

Oregon Speech-Language and Hearing Association
http://www.oregonspeechandhearing.org/

Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists
http://www.caslpa.ca/english/index.asp

Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists
http://www.rcslt.org/

National Center for Voice and Speech
http://www.ncvs.org/

American Academy of Private Practice in Speech Pathology and Audiology
http://www.aappspa.org/

Hearing Speech and Deafness Center
http://www.hsdc.org/

National Association of Professionals concerned with language Impairment in Children
http://www.naplic.org.uk/

Division for Children with Communication Disorders
c/o Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
1920 Association Drive
Reston, VA 22091
703-620-3660

AFASIC
http://www.afasic.org.uk/
Afasic is the UK charity representing children and young adults with communication impairments, working for their inclusion in society and supporting their parents and caregivers.

San Diego Scottish Rite Clinic for Childhood Language Disorders
http://www.scottishritesandiego.org/childhoodlanguagedisorders.html

 
APRAXIA-KIDS
A resource, discussion list for families of children with developmental apraxia of speech (verbal dyspraxia) and the professionals
that care about them.
Instructions: In the body of your email, send the message, SUBSCRIBE APRAXIA-KIDS to LISTSERV@LISTSERV.SYR.EDU
Listowners: Sharon Gretz sharong@nauticom.net

 
AUDITORY PROCESSING
Individuals who have normal hearing but have difficulty with discriminating words, listening in background noise, trouble following ongoing conversation, and seem to have trouble paying attention when others are talking, may have a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Open archives.
Instructions: Send a blank email to AuditoryProcessing-subscribe@yahoogroups.com.

 
SLP FORUM
http://speechlanguagepathologist.org/message_board_f.htm

 
CAPD
Central auditory processing disorders, primarily parents and educators. Archives.
Instructions: Send the message, SUBSCRIBE CAPD to LISTSERV@MAELSTROM.STJOHNS.EDU.
Listowner: Jay Lucker DRJ@RDZ.STJOHNS.EDU

 
COMMUNICATING
Dr. MacDonald provides insight to parents on this forum for parents of children who have significantly delayed speech. Children with autism, Down Syndrome, PDD/NOS and any other disability that effects a child's communication.
Subscription: Send a blank email message to communicating-subscribe@yahoogroups.com.
Listowner: Jenny Wendling (MJW28@aol.com)

 
LATE TALKERS
Latetalkers is a discussion forum for anyone interested in the late development of speech in children, regardless of cause. It is a low volume and friendly list and may be of interest to those who cannot keep up with the volume on the CAPD list.
Subscription instructions: Send an email to Latetalkers-subscribe@yahoogroups.com or subscribe online.
Listowner: Karen, Latetalkers-owner@egroups.com

 
SPK2WRT
SPK2WRT (Speak To Write) listserv is a moderated discussion forum for speech recognition technology of students with disabilities in home and school settings. U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research. Public archives.
Instructions: In the body of your email send the message, SUBSCRIBE SPK2WRT to majordomo@mail.edc.org

 
Phonological Therapy FOR SLPs, LINGUISTS, STUDENTS AND CONSUMERS
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/phonologicaltherapy/
The phonological therapy discussion group provides an opportunity to ask and answer questions and explore theoretical and research issues related to young children's speech sound disorders in general, and developmental phonological disorders in particular. The emphasis is on clinical assessment and intervention.
 

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 Articles Related to this Disability

 

Inside the Edge: A Journey to Using Speech Through Typing - Inside the Edge is a documentary written and narrated by Jamie Burke, a 15-year-old high school student with autism. In this video, he tells of his personal experiences with the use of facilitated communication, developing speech, and inclusive schooling. Jamie has used FC since his pre-school days; during the past few years, he has become independent in his typing, has learned to read out loud what he has previously typed, and is increasingly able to speak meaningfully without previously typing his words. This video artfully combines images of Jamie with his narration, letting us join him on his journey. (Running time: 18:00) To view a snippet of the video, go to http://www.breaking-the-barriers.org, click on "Personal Stories" and then click on "Jamie Burke".
 

Stuttering: Avoiding Pepperoni - National Post reporter Joseph Brean, who stutters, writes about the latest treatment being pioneered by Toronto researchers, how he copes with the speech impediment and the perils of ordering pizza.

 

Specific Language Impairment Due To Inability To Process Sound Normally
Doctor's Guide Publishing
http://www.pslgroup.com/dg/25b76.htm
A startling new finding made by researchers from the University of California San Francisco strengthens evidence that a disorder which prevents millions of U.S. children from keeping up in the classroom stems from an inability to process sound normally, and not from problems that originate primarily in higher brain regions as many other scientists had earlier proposed.

 
Spoken Language Problems
Kid Source Online
http://www.kidsource.com/LDA/spoken_language.html
The development of spoken/oral language normally occurs without formal teaching. It develops as a result of exposure to spoken language. Problems with language development may not be recognized for a long time unless the child simply fails to begin talking. Oral language is the basis for learning reading and written language and for benefiting from instruction in other areas. It is important to identify children whose language is not developing normally so that more specific stimulation and actual intervention can begin as early as possible.

Language and the Adolescent
Kid Source Online
http://www.kidsource.com/ASHA/letstalk33.html
The ability to read and write is strongly influenced by the ability to understand and use language. Students who are good listeners and speakers tend to become strong readers and writers.

Scientists unlock mysteries of speech
By BBC News Online's Helen Briggs
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1575471.stm
UK scientists have identified the first gene involved in the development of speech and language.

 
Speech and Language : Causes, Milestones and Suggestions
By Kimberly A. Powell, Ph.D.
http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/guidelines.html  
Speech is a skill that children begin to develop with the first sounds they make as babies. For most children, their first words are made up of simple sounds such as Mama, Dada or bye-bye. Gradually children begin to use their speech skills, or sounds, to form language.

Guidelines for Your Child's First Words
By James D. MacDonald
http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/first-words.html
The first words that children use describe their own experiences and their motivations. Ordinarily they do not first talk about adult or school ideas. They have their own first language and appear to develop language best if they are helped to develop that special language before they learn adult or school words. Children learn words and use them in communication best when those words do the following things.

Having Conversations with Children Learning to Talk
By James D. MacDonald
http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/conversations.html
One of the most important things in helping children learn to talk is to have frequent, friendly conversations with them. These conversations do not have to be long, or be about anything adults consider important; the goal is to keep your child interacting with you using any words he can say.

The Surprising Power of Waiting
By James D. MacDonald
http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/waiting.html
In our concern for helping a child communicate, many of us often overstimulate the child. A father, teaching a child to build a bridge, might stack all the blocks at once. The mother, wanting her child to talk, may give her a constant stream of words such as "What did you do in school; was Sally there; did she pick you as a partner again; you like her don't you?" Both examples show a concerned parent doing too much without waiting for the child to do his part.

Young Children's Oral Language Development
By Celia Genishi
http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/young-children.html
The development of oral language is one of the child's most natural--and impressive--accomplishments. This [Eric] digest presents an overview of the process and mechanics of language development, along with implications for practice.

Why Do Children Have Difficulty Learning to Talk?
By James D. MacDonald
http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/problems.html
Why do children have difficulty learning to talk? The following are only a few of the common problems we have seen.

New Technology Shows Dramatic Results For Children With Language Impairments
Kid Source Online
http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/products/language.html
Breakthrough Offers Answer to White House Call for Helping Parents Develop Children's Language Skills; Parents Should Watch for Symptoms of Language Impairment as Early as Age 2.
 

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 Medical Information

 

Specific Diseases – A listing compiled by the New York Online Access to Health.
 

How to Think About a Speech/Language Evaluation
by Sharon Gretz
http://www.apraxia-kids.org/assessment/evaluation.html
The following are tips for parents who suspect apraxia of speech may be an issue in their child and are seeking a speech/language evaluation. The tips were put together by an experienced mom involved with the Apraxia-KidsSM Network.

 
Speech impairment – Definition

Health Library

Early Identification of Speech-Language Delays and Disorders
Kid Source Online
http://www.kidsource.com/ASHA/early_identification.html

First gene involved in speech and language identified
http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/pressoffice/pressarchive/firstgene_18_10_01.html
UK scientists have made a breakthrough in understanding how speech and language develops in humans. They have identified the first gene whose function is thought to be involved in this uniquely human characteristic, using freely available information from the Human Genome Project.

Language Learning Impairment: Integrating Research and Remediation
Paula Tallal, Ph.D.
http://www.newhorizons.org/neuro/tallal.htm
Two independent research studies report that language learning impaired (LLI) children improved by approximately two years after only four weeks of intensive exposure to speech and language listening exercises presented with an acoustically modified speech signal, together with a new form of adaptive computer training (Merzenich, 1996; Tallal, et al., 1996).

Language Impairment, Developmental
MITECHS Abstracts
http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/tallal
It has been estimated that approximately thirteen percent of all children have some form of language impairment (Beitchman et al. 1986a). The most common known causes of developmental language impairments are hearing loss (including intermittent hearing loss resulting from chronic otitis media), general MENTAL RETARDATION, neurological disorders such as lesions or epilepsy affecting the auditory processing or language areas of the brain, and motor defects affecting the oral musculature.

Research on Speech and Language of Premature Children
Summeries By Allison Martin
http://www.comeunity.com/premature/research/research-speech.html
Research on speech and language outcomes in children born premature.

Specific Language Impairment Due To Inability To Process Sound Normally
http://www.docguide.com/dg.nsf/PrintPrint/28D7E7BEF2A5827D85256491004A6A70
A startling new finding made by researchers from the University of California San Francisco strengthens evidence that a disorder which prevents millions of U.S. children from keeping up in the classroom stems from an inability to process sound normally, and not from problems that originate primarily in higher brain regions as many other scientists had earlier proposed.

Does Hearing Loss Due to Otitis Media Cause Language Impairment in Infancy?
http://www.d.umn.edu/~kbrorson/sampleresearchpaper1.htm
Several studies have investigated the correlation between ON4E (otitis media with effusion) and language impairments in young children up to adolescents but few have looked at the correlation between ON4E and language impairments in infants up to one year of age.

Study Suggests Speech Itself Drowns Out Language For Some Children
Northwestern News
http://www.northwestern.edu/univ-relations/media/news-releases/*archives96-97/*medical/sli.html
A study published recently in Nature suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulties processing the rapidly successive acoustic changes that characterize speech because speech -- with its continuous stream of sounds -- is drowning itself out.

Speech Disorders
 
Language impairment greatly hinders the social interaction of many children, says BYU study
Mark Morris
http://www.byu.edu/news/releases/archive99/Mar/speech.htm
particular language disorder that affects seven percent of all people born in the United States every year places children on the margins of society. Known as "specific language impairment," it crosses racial, cultural and socioeconomic boundaries, leaving children with academic wounds and social problems, according to a study conducted by two professors at Brigham Young University.

Hearing Test Identifies Auditory Problems in Children Who Have Language Impairment
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/may97/nidcd-27.htm
A hearing test has uncovered auditory processing problems that may be at the root of a childhood language disorder that often affects school performance…

Voice & Speech Anatomy
http://members.tripod.com/Caroline_Bowen/anatomy.htm
THE STRUCTURES OF VOICE AND SPEECH.

Individual differences in handedness and specific speech and language impairment: evidence against a genetic link
D. V. M. Bishop
http://epwww.psych.ox.ac.uk/oscci/dbhtml/abstracts/individual_differences_in_handed.htm
Data from two twin studies were used to address two related questions. First, is there any association between handedness and specific speech and language impairment (SSLI) in children? Second, is there genetic influence on individual differences in handedness, and if so, are the same genes implicated in the etiology of SSLI?

CLINICAL APPLICATION: PERCEPTUAL PROBLEMS IN HEARING IMPAIRMENT, LANGUAGE AND READING DISABILITY, AND ARTICULATION DEFICITS - click here.
 

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 Books and Videos

Communication and Language Intervention Series
http://www.pbrookes.com/store/cli.htm
This trans-disciplinary series addresses the language problems of children with communication disorders and developmental disabilities. Grounded in state-of-the-art research yet practical in orientation, these books work to enhance the abilities of professionals and students in communication fields.

 
Childhood Speech, Language, and Listening Problems
by Patricia McAleer Hamaguchi
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471034134/comeunitysupport/104-5905594-1480730
Does your child have trouble speaking or listening? This essential, up-to-date guide explains what parents can do to help. Speech-language pathologist Patricia Hamaguchi employs her 15 years of experience to show parents how to recognize the most common speech, language, and listening problems.

Does My Child Have a Speech Problem
by Katherine L. Martin, Katherine I. Martin
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1556523157/ref=pd_sxp_elt_l1/104-5905594-1480730
All children go through periods of saying "ting" for "thing" or "feets" for "feet," and no two children learn to speak on exactly the same schedule. This informative, reassuring guide helps parents and teachers identify normal speech development and potential problems, with advice on when and where to seek help, how to support your child's prescribed speech program, and how to lessen the risk of speech or language difficulties. Easy-to-understand question-and-answer format; guidelines for assessing your child's speech and language development; practical strategies for coping with stuttering, poor listening or memory skills, vocal fatigue or hoarseness, ear infections and hearing and much more; and ways to enhance speech and language development that both you and your child will enjoy.

Late-Talking Children
by Thomas Sowell
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0465038352/ref=pd_sxp_elt_l1/104-5905594-1480730
The painful and baffling mystery as to why some obliviously bright children do not begin talking until long after the "normal" time is explored in this book through personal experiences and the findings of scientific research. The author's own experiences as the father of such a child led to the information of a group of more than fifty sets of parents of similar children. The anguish and frustration of these parents as they try to cope with children who do not talk and institutions that do not understand them is a remarkable and moving human story. Fortunately, some of these children turn out to have not only normal intelligence but even outstanding abilities, especially in highly analytical fields such as mathematics and computers. These fascinating stories of late-talking children and the remarkable families from which they come are followed by explorations of scientific research that throw light on unusual development patterns.

The Einstein Syndrome: Bright Children Who Talk Late
by Thomas Sowell
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0465081401/ref=pd_sxp_elt_l1/104-5905594-1480730
The author of Late-Talking Children returns to report on research that moves this phenomenon firmly into the realm of well-established science-the definitive book on this syndrome for parents, teachers, and others. The Einstein Syndrome is a follow-up to Late-Talking Children, which established Thomas Sowell as a leading spokesman on the subject of late-talking children. While many children who talk late suffer from developmental disorders or autism, there is a certain well-defined group who are developmentally normal or even quite bright, yet who may go past their fourth birthday before beginning to talk. These children are often misdiagnosed as autistic or retarded, a mistake that is doubly hard on parents who must first worry about their apparently handicapped children and then see them lumped into special classes and therapy groups where all the other children are clearly very different.

The Late Talker: What to Do If Your Child Isn't Talking Yet
by Marilyn Agin (Author), Lisa Geng (Author), Malcolm Nicholl (Author)
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0312287542/ref=pd_sxp_elt_l1/104-5905594-1480730
Every parent eagerly awaits the day his or her child will speak for the first time. For millions of mothers and fathers, however, anticipation turns to anxiety when those initial, all-important words are a long time coming. Many worried parents are reassured that their child is “just a late talker,” but unfortunately, all too often that is not the case. Nineteen million children in the United States have a serious speech disorder. For these children, early and intensive therapy is crucial if they are to stand a chance of ever speaking normally. This book was written to help the worried parent cut through the confusion and stress to determine if their child needs help.

Beyond Baby Talk: From Sounds to Sentences, A Parent's Complete Guide to Language Development
by Julie J. Masterson Phd, Kenn Apel Phd, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0761526471/ref=pd_sxp_elt_l1/104-5905594-1480730
The first five years of a child's life are the most critical for speech and language development, and, as a parent, you are your child's primary language role model. So what are the best ways to help your child develop the all-important skill of communication? Fun, easy, and engaging, this book shows you how! Inside, you'll discover all of the essential steps and checkpoints from birth through age five, tips to help your child progress on schedule, and easy methods to:
•Evaluate and monitor your child's language development
•Understand and deal with environmental impacts such as television and cultural styles
•Recognize the signs of language development problems
•And much, much more!

Childhood Motor Speech Disability (2nd Edition)
by Russell J. Love
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0205297811/comeunitysupport/104-5905594-1480730
Childhood Motor Speech Disabilities provides a comprehensive, up-to-date outline of all childhood motor speech disabilities. This book also gives readers a complete picture of the major nervous system disorders associated with dysarthria, presents the five types of childhood dysarthria, and clarifies the classification of childhood dysarthria.

"Help Me Talk Right": How to Correct a Child's Lisp in 15 Easy Lessons (Help Me Talk Right Series)
by Mirla G. Raz
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0963542605/ref=pd_sxp_elt_l1/104-5905594-1480730
Free of technical jargon and easy to use, this book is for speech pathologists, speech assistants, and parents who wish to teach a child how to say the "s" sound and use it in conversation. Everything you need to know about teaching a child to say and use the "s" sound is clearly shown in a step-by-step format. Each lesson builds upon the successes of previous lessons so that the child is challenged to use the "s" more often until he is able to use it in conversation. The book comes complete with worksheets, suggestions for games and fun exercises, and a certificate of achievement.

 
Communicate with Your Child
By James D. Macdonald & Barbara Mitchell
http://www.comeunity.com/disability/speech/bkmacdonald.html
Communicate With Your Child provides guidance for parents raising children with special needs who have language delays or difficulty communicating. Dr. MacDonald has conducted over 25 years of clinical research at the Ohio State University with more than 600 children with developmental delays and 100 typically developing children. His practical guidance is distilled from broad based clinical experience in a format that is easy to read and implement in your own life. Barbara Mitchell and Dr. MacDonald supplement this guidance with engrossing descriptions of how to apply these principles with children who have a variety of disabilities - including autism, downs syndrome, and behavior disorders.

Developmental Phonological Disorders: A Practical Guide for Families and Teachers
by Caroline Bowen
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0864312563/comeunitysupport/104-5905594-1480730
Developmental Phonological Disorders is a slim handbook encouraging the understanding of parents of the theory and practice of phonological speech disorders. It provides a muli-modal treatment plan demonstrated to help preschool and elementary age children produce correct and understandable speech, which parents and speech therapists can implement together.

It Takes 2 to Talk: Hanen Parent Guide Book
by Ayala Manolson
Reviewer: Debbie Hughes. This is the best guide for parents to learn how to encourage their children to communicate. It explains different ways to establish a special bond between parent and child. It explains how children learn to communicate and ways to help your child through this learning process. Examples of games for fun and learning, music activities, art activities, and even a booklist of wonderful books for children to read are given in this book. This book is wonderful for parents, teachers, and all caregivers of children.

Mouth Madness: Oral Motor Activities for Children
by Catherine Orr
Activity book for occupational and speech therapists. Emphasizes mouth movements in a game format for oral motor skill development. Halftone illustrations. Softcover.

Oral Motor Assessment and Treatment: Ages and Stages
by Diane Chapman Bahr, Diane Chapman Bahr, Argye Elizabeth Hillis
A clinical handbook for speech-language pathologists and other professionals, showing how to assess and treat oral motor concerns in clients of all ages with a variety of disorders.

Children with Specific Language Impairment (Language, Speech, and Communication)
by Laurence B. Leonard (Author)
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0262621363/ref%3Dase%5Fsearch0a/104-5905594-1480730
Approximately 5 percent of all children are born with the disorder known as specific language impairment (SLI). These children show a significant deficit in spoken language ability with no obvious accompanying condition such as mental retardation, neurological damage, or hearing impairment. Children with Specific Language Impairment covers all aspects of SLI, including its history, possible genetic and neurobiological origins, and clinical and educational practice. The book highlights important research strategies in the quest to find the cause of SLI and to develop methods of prevention and treatment. It also explores how knowledge of SLI may add to our understanding of language organization and development in general.

Language Disorders and Language Development
by Margaret Lahey
550 pages.

Articulation and Phonological Disorders
by John E. Bernthal
Unlike many similar books currently on the market, this reference does not prescribe a single approach to phonetical disorders. Therapists are now given a choice of methods with this eclectic perspective on the nature, assessment, and treatment of this type of communication impairment. Current research data, coverage of dialect and information on the use of technology in clinical phonology is included in this updated version of the classic in the field of phonology.

CD - Marvelous Mouth Music: Songs for Speech Therapy and Beyond [ABRIDGED]
by Aubrey Lande, Bob Wiz, Aubrey Lande, Suzanne Evans Morris
21 activity-based Songames designed by Dr. Suzanne Evans Morris, an internationally recognized Speech Therapist, is ideally suited for kids ages 2-9. The 41-page companion booklet includes a 'How to Use' section, all the song lyrics, and a model for how to use all types of music to promote therapeutic change.

 

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