Bridges4Kids Logo

About Us Breaking News Find Help in Michigan Find Help in the USA Find Help in Canada Inspiration
IEP Goals Help4Parents Disability Info Homeschooling College/Financial Aid Summer Camp
IEP Topics Help4Teachers Homework Help Charter/Private Insurance Nutrition
Ask the Attorney Become an Advocate Children "At-Risk" Bullying Legal Research Lead Poisoning
Bridges4Kids is now on Facebook. Follow us today!

Disability Information - Learning Disabilities (LD)


General Information

Education & Classroom Accommodations

Michigan Resources, Support Groups, Listservs & Websites

National Resources & Websites

Articles Related to this Disability Membership Driven Site That Offers Electronic Books dramatically increases access to books for the community of visually impaired and otherwise print disabled individuals. This online community enables book scans to be shared, thereby leveraging the collections of thousands of individuals who regularly scan books, eliminating significant duplication of effort.


back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 General Information


Children with Convergence Insufficiency are sometimes diagnosed with Learning Disorders or Dyslexia Overview (from the Mayo Clinic) (Also see Learning Disabilities and Dyslexia)


Learning Disabilities Basics (PDF; 17 pages)
This guide covers the fundamental facts about learning disabilities.

Learning Disabilities from


All About Learning Disabilities: What if you think your child has a learning disability?


Lazy, underachiever, unmotivated, lack of desire to learn, fails to complete assignments, immature. Do these descriptions ring a bell? Living with an "invisible" disability can be extremely frustrating for a child and his parents. When a child is unable to meet educational expectations, typically, an emphasis may be first placed on the child's behaviors. Not every learning disability is readily apparent; some may be far more subtle and harder to diagnose. Unless a child shows clear-cut delays in development, he may fall through the cracks.


Learning disabilities have a wide range of categories, even talented and gifted children can have a learning disability in another area of learning. Learning disabilities are lifelong, however, they certainly do not hamper an individual's ability to become a valuable member of society. A learning disability does NOT mean that the person cannot learn. It simply means, that modifications may need to be made to enhance learning.

The most common learning disabilities are:


Dyslexia--difficulties in the language area, which may include reading, spelling, and understanding the concept or meaning of the message within the text.

Dysgraphia--difficulties in writing letters and/or keeping the written work within a confined space.

Dyscalculia--difficulties in the area of math, which include basic math facts and understanding math concepts.

Auditory and Visual Processing--difficulties in sensory integration, although the child has normal vision and hearing, processing in the environment is overwhelming.


Approximately, 65% of our language is non-verbal. Individuals are assessed by their language abilities, which includes writing, speaking, spelling, and reading.


Nonverbal learning disorders (NLD) are also called right-hemisphere learning disorders. NLD is a neurological based learning disorder. This is a complicated learning disorder because it's hard to identify, it often remains undiagnosed, and the children who have it, tend to be misdiagnosed. Children with NLD possess strong skills particularly in the area of language development and rote memory. However, because of the child's inability to interpret non-verbal cues in his environment, it is very difficult for him to understand and respond appropriately.

Children who have NLD exhibit delays in the following areas:


Motor--difficulties in coordination and balance.

Visual--spatial-organizational-difficulties in visual-spatial recall and perceptions.

Social--difficulties in recognizing non-verbal cues and nuances, the inability to interact at an age-appropriate social level, and immature reactions and judgments in comparison to peers.

Coping--difficulties in assimilating to new concepts and environments.


Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) has recently been renamed Auditory Processing Disorder(APD). Typically, the majority of us can learn and process despite background noise. APD is the inability to process language within our environment. Children who are at risk for APD are preemies, kids who have had chronic ear infections, those who are highly distractible and children diagnosed with  ADD/ADHD, Asperger's Syndrome, and PDD( the autism spectrum).


If you suspect that your child has a learning disability, early intervention is essential. Talk to your child's physician. Contact an early intervention program in your area, or an education specialist. Headstart is an excellent program that works with "at-risk" preschool children. If you suspect that your school-aged child is having difficulties, request an assessment by the school professionals. Empower yourself by researching learning disabilities and most importantly, don't be afraid to speak up on behalf of your child. You are the best advocate for your child, so don't get discouraged and by all means, be persistent.


back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 Education & Classroom Accommodations


SchwabLearning Creates Online "Toolkit" on Learning Disabilities - This new Back-to-School Kit delivers the information you need now and to plan for the school year; includes information, resources, and articles about learning disabilities.


Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? - Modality theory—the idea that students differ in their visual, auditory, and kinesthetic abilities and learn more when instruction is geared to their strengths—has been a popular idea for decades. Cognitive science has taught us is that children do differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching the child in his best modality doesn’t affect his educational achievement. What does matter is whether the child is taught in the content’s best modality. In this column, I will describe some of the research on matching modality strength to the modality of instruction. I will also address why the idea of tailoring instruction to a student’s best modality is so enduring—despite substantial evidence that it is wrong.


Struggling Decoders: Reading Fluently and Making Meaning of Text - As an elementary school teacher and principal for the past 31 years, I have had ample opportunities to listen to students read. By the time that they are in the third grade, most students are able to read with fluency and make sense of at least simple texts. Some students with learning disabilities plod through the same texts that their peers read with ease. When I think about these students, I am struck with how their reading in many ways mirrors my reading when I use my eyes and, to a lesser extent, my fingers.


Qualifying for LD in Michigan: The guidelines for determining SLD in Wayne County are available here at


Reading Basics (PDF; 20 pages) - Find out what’s involved in learning to read and how to support a child who struggles with reading.

Scientific Learning: A new way to learn - The Fast ForWord family of products develops the critical thinking, listening, and reading skills that are necessary for success in the classroom, the workplace and in everyday life. The Fast ForWord family of products use neuroscience principles to create an optimal learning environment that enables you to: Simultaneously develop multiple skill sets to maximize learning, Identify reading and language difficulties, and Attack the underlying causes of these difficulties.


NCLB and Students with Learning Disabilities: Opportunities and Obstacles - The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), the Bush Administration’s bold federal school reform law, includes benefits to students with learning disabilities (LD), as well as some barriers that might prevent these same students from enjoying all of the opportunities in the law.


Educating Students with Learning Disabilities - click hereMillions of students have learning disabilities. What is LD, and what types of accommodations and educational practices are effective with students who have this disability? This annotated resource list of articles, books, and videos was developed expressly for special and general educators working with such students. 1996, 12 pages.


Learning Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities - click herePair this resource list up with the NICHCY News Digest called Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities and teach your students with LD how to use learning strategies to help themselves learn.


back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 Michigan Resources, Support Groups, Listservs & Websites

Eton Academy -- An accredited independent co-ed day school for students in grades 1-12 with learning differences. For more information, visit or email


The Alcott Center for Cognitive Enhancement, LLC provides research-based intervention methods including Lindamood-Bell learning processes, PACE/Master the Code, and auditory intervention. Areas of focus include: Learning disabilities, (C)APD, Dyslexia, AD/HD, Sensory Integration Dysfunction, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Speech and Language problems and other developmental delays and disorders. We provide a FREE program screening and a complimentary consultation to review test results and treatment recommendations. Programs are custom-designed to meet the individual needs of each child.

Learning Disabilities Association of Michigan -


The Michigan Association of Learning Disabilities Educators (MALDE) was formed in 1973 as an organization of individuals interested in the education of students with learning disabilities. We believe that the most effective way to improve education for this diverse group of students is found through cooperative efforts, active participation, communication, and sharing.


Learning Disabilities Online - LD In Depth offers a vast array of information on topics within the area of learning disabilities. Here you'll find articles written by the leading experts, research findings reported by top researchers, and the latest news in the field of learning disabilities.


The National Center for Learning Disabilities - In the last twenty years since NCLD's founding, there has been significant progress in identifying learning disabilities (LD) and finding effective ways to help those who have them.


All Kinds of Minds provides programs, tools, and a common language for parents, educators, and clinicians to help students with differences in learning achieve success in the classroom and in life. Founded in 1995, All Kinds of Minds is a private non-profit Institute, affiliated with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, that offers a powerful system of programs for helping kids succeed.


Learning Disabilities Association of Michigan
200 Museum Drive, Suite 101
Lansing, MI 48933
Phone: 517/485-8160
Toll free: 888/597-7890


back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 National Resources & Websites


Sacramento LDA

Learning Abled Kids - Your child may struggle in some areas, but this doesn't have to stop them from reaching their full potential. You probably know more about your child's potential than anyone else and know they have skills that are overlooked by others. You also have the daunting task of ensuring your child receives a thorough education, but where do you begin?


Keep Kids Learning - In response to a poll showing that 44% of parents have a struggling learner in the household and that an overwhelming majority of parents and teachers believe that children with learning difficulties need to be identified and helped earlier, the National Center on Learning Disabilities has sponsored a new website designed to give parents and professionals a place to express opinions on the reauthorization of IDEA. Called, it allows visitors to easily send their opinions and concerns about the legislation to their Senator or Representative.


Free Handbook Empowers Parents of African American Children with LD


Learning Disabilities Association of America -


Learning Disabled from Parenting Special Needs


Living With an Invisible Disability

National Institute of Mental Health


Nonverbal Learning Disorders on the Web


Schwab Foundation for Learning


Special Education at


More Learning Disabilities Links


LDA of America:

Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities:

The Division for Learning Disabilities of the Council for Exceptional Children

International Dyslexia Association.:

National Association of African American Children with Learning Disabilities:

Schwab Learning:

LD Resources:

National Institute of Mental Health:

Nonverbal Learning Disorder:

back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


 Articles Related to this Disability


Target Learning Disabilities With Same Force as Cancer - I know you can intervene at any age with a problem. I'm 67, and my doctors didn't say, "Well, she's too old to help." When I found out I had cancer, I said, "What can we do about it now to get rid of it?" I didn't wait a few years and hope that it would get better. Everything else was put on hold and we aggressively attacked the problem. It's just as important to catch a learning disability early and fix it.

Understanding Learning Disabilities - This article provides an overview of learning disabilities, the IDEA definition of learning disabilities, information on useful classroom interventions for students with learning disabilities, and information on how districts can put research findings on effectively teaching students with learning disabilities into practice.

Navigating Special Education - This is a transcript from the October 26, 2005 LD Talk online discussion with Alan Brue, Ph.D. and Linda Wilmshurst, Ph.D., authors of A Parent’s Guide to Special Education. Brue and Wilmshurst answered questions from parents and others across the country.

Promoting Life Success for Students with Learning Disabilities - This is a transcript from the September 28, 2005 LD Talk online discussion with Roberta Goldberg, Ph.D. and Eleanor Higgins, Ph.D., researchers at the Frostig Center in Pasadena, CA. Goldberg and Higgins answered questions from parents and others across the country.


An Interview with Harry Sylvester: About Learning Disabilities - Harry Sylvester is Past President of LDA (Learning Disabilities Association of America), has established several adult support groups, mentored adolescents, and was one of the founders and Board President of a rural health center in Maine.


Fewer Students Classified as Learning Disabled in Wisconsin - The number of Wisconsin children diagnosed with learning disabilities has shrunk over the past four years, a trend that can be attributed to numerous factors, including efforts to change the way schools classify students. Still, the number of students classified as needing special-education services has gone up, mirroring a nationwide trend.


U.S. Imaging Study Reveals Brain Function of Poor Readers Can Improve - A brain imaging study has shown that, after they overcome their reading disability, the brains of formerly poor readers begin to function like the brains of good readers, showing increased activity in a part of the brain that recognizes words. The study appears in the May 1 "Biological Psychiatry" and was funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).


It's a Family Affair - Lissa Weinstein, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the doctoral program in clinical psychology at City College and The Graduate School of The City University of New York, as well as an associate director at the Pacella Parent Infant Center. She has worked as a clinical psychologist for more than 20 years and authored numerous articles about developmental psychology. Her book, Reading David, chronicles her experiences caring for her dyslexic son, incorporating both her own voice and that of her son, David.


MI Kurzweil Educational Systems, Inc. Joins the National Center for Learning Disabilities to Recognize School for Outstanding Support for Students with Learning Disabilities - Muskegon High School has adopted a Comprehensive School Reform model in which supplemental courses are used in place of remedial classes for students struggling with math and reading, has provided training to all English teachers on Student Team Literature, a program developed at John Hopkins University that addresses the needs of at-risk students, and has provided training to both special education and core content general education teachers on the Strategic Instruction Model, implementing the approach school-wide within both the special and general ed curricula."


A Tale of Two Children: From School-age Struggles to Adult Success - Over seventeen years ago, just a week and a half into kindergarten, my bright, sweet five-year-old daughter Dria told me she had “failed seven times, once each day” for failing to follow her teacher’s directions. By first grade, she had fallen into the lowest reading group and was misbehaving in class, to the extent that her teacher had begun sending home a daily report card stating, “I was good today,” “I was bad today,” or “I was fair today,” which I had to sign each night and return.
Life Success for Children with Learning Disabilities: A Parent Guide - Drawing on more than 20 years of groundbreaking research tracing the lives of children and adults with learning disabilities (LD), researchers at the Frostig Center in Pasadena, California have identified key factors that contribute to success.

Scientists Discover New Gene Essential for the Development of Normal Brain Connections Resulting From Sensory Input - Biologists at the University of California, San Diego and the Johns Hopkins University have discovered a gene that plays a key role in initiating changes in the brain in response to sensory experience, a finding that may provide insight into certain types of learning disorders.


Trying to Figure Out Why Math Is So Hard for Some - Theories Abound: Genetics, Gender, How It's Taught; Three little words -- "math is hard" -- uttered a decade ago by Teen Talk Barbie drew enough protests of sexism that its maker, Mattel Inc., pulled the doll from stores. But researchers today say Barbie wasn't all wrong: Math is hard for many -- male and female, children and adults. And while a "math gene" has not been discovered, experts say that early school-age boys and girls tend to approach the subject differently, influenced by biological, environmental and educational factors.


Talking About Learning Disabilities - The National Center for Learning Disabilities has developed a LD Advocates Guide to explain how best to engage policymakers and the media on issues affecting the LD community. The Guide also provides a primer on key issues affecting the fields of learning disabilities and special education.


Pete Wright: Championing Children for Whom Reading and Learning Are Difficult - How old are you? Ninety-nine percent of us answer this question reflexively, without having to think. A reporter who put this question to Peter W. D. Wright several years ago was stunned when Mr. Wright, an education lawyer, resorted to a calculator before answering.


Spinning in My Head - Henry Sherwin, a middle school student from New York, describes in a candid and engaging way how it feels to live with learning disabilities, offering valuable insights and practical tips for daily survival.


Ford Family Fighters - Anne Ford's devotion, not her money and prominence, made the difference for her learning disabled daughter.


Ask Rick La Voie: Questions and Answers for Parents - Question: Whoever wrote the song, "Summertime and the living is easy" never had a learning disabled child! I have a son and a daughter with ADHD/LD and summers are often a disaster. Can you help? 


G. Reid Lyon's Views on Rethinking Learning Disabilities:  Recommendations for Reading - In this article we are going to explore Dr. Lyon’s perspectives on prevention and intervention in the field of reading.  Reading development has been and continues to be one area of current practice that Dr. Lyon has criticized most vociferously.


Chasing and Catching Slow Learners in Changing Times - Slow learners make up 14% of the general population yet often do not qualify for special education or other services. The No Child Left Behind Act and amendments to IDEA may change that.


G. Reid Lyon’s Views on Rethinking Learning Disabilities:  An Introduction - In the past few years, policymakers, consumers and stakeholders have begun to criticize special ed sharply.


Kids and Competition: Can They Live Without it? - We teach children to measure their performance and their worth by comparing it to the performance of others. The effect of this practice becomes clear as the child enters middle and high school. Many parents report that their children appear highly stressed and suffer from "free-floating anxiety," which may be created by this undue emphasis upon competition.


Selecting A College for Students with Learning Disabilities (LD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) -  Students with learning disabilities (LD) or attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) approach the transition from high school to college with an array of learning strengths and needs.


Intellectual Accessibility in the Library - Public Libraries are a unique governmental entity. A person does not have to live under the federal poverty line to be eligible for a library card. There is no medical exam, no asset limit test, not even an interview with a social worker for access to all the things a library contains.


Identifying Learning Differences in Adopted Children - When you made the choice to adopt a child, you took a leap of faith at least one bound beyond that taken by other parents. And, if your child is challenged by learning or attention problems, your parenting path may now seem strewn with “speed bumps” caused by these overlapping issues.


Researchers support early intervention for all children with reading difficulties


Pain, Waste, and Hope for a Better Future - "Invisible Disabilities" in the Educational System by Margi Nowak, Ph.D.

Dr. Feldman, when teenagers become resistant and won’t listen to their parents, where can they turn for help? - click here for the answer.


A Hurdle Too High - I am not your average kid with a learning disability. I am a unique kid with a different style of learning. I did not choose to have this learning disability. It chose me. Because I am stuck with this, I am not going to let this problem get in the way of my success.


LD and Your Child: An Age-by-Age Guide


Paying for a Disability Diagnosis to Gain Time on College Boards


An Encouraging Story: A Learning Disability Doesn't Mean A Student Can't Excel

Learning Disabilities: Notes from Secondary Teachers


Eye Problems Sometimes Mistaken For Learning Disabilities - Kids' Vision Problems Often Go Unnoticed.

MI Technology helps boost writing skills - Computer programs increase test scores, student interest.


Read the article "Children's Reading Disability Attributed to Brain Impairment"


Voice of Experience: Learn why teacher Janice Robertson looks forward to integrating special-needs students into her classroom lessons. [source]


MI Some schools to get funds to boost kids' reading skills - Some Oakland County schools may be able to win as much as $400,000 to teach children to read.


IA Report: Iowa excels in special education - A national education commission has recommended that the other 49 states follow Iowa's lead and stop using IQ tests to screen students for learning disabilities.


CA Teens Get a Second Chance at Literacy - L.A. Unified begins a back-to-basics reading program for secondary students. The effort is being watched by districts nationwide.


Richardson schools to switch reading programs - Focus moves from one-on-one tutoring to teaching small groups.


Support for Reading Recovery:  Letters to the Editor of Education Week


Children’s Reading Disability Attributed To Brain Impairment


Read "Researchers support early intervention for all children with reading difficulties" - National experts in the field of reading and literacy have found research evidence that challenges federal policy for making children eligible to receive some special education services.


Read "The Pathways of Math’s Ways" by Dr. Mel Levine - Students face a hefty challenge as they struggle to climb through the pathways leading to an academic summit called success in mathematics. Once they get there, the view is great. En route there are seemingly endless obstacles. The pitfalls are especially troubling for students who have differences in learning that impede their ability to think with numbers. Let’s look at some of the challenges and the ways they might not be met. We can divide these into: knowing what you’re doing; remembering what to do and what you’re doing, and becoming a good problem solver. {source}


Read the article "Testing For Aptitude, Not For Speed"


back to the top - back to disability topics - report a bad link


2002-2018 Bridges4Kids