The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 (NCLBA)


Last Updated: 02/06/2018


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Articles & Resources


Parents Desire Better Tools, Information to Help High School Students Succeed, Report Finds - Parents with students in low-performing high schools say their schools don't give them the tools and information they need to be more effective in helping their students succeed, a new report from Civic Enterprises finds.

No Child Left Behind Faces Charges - Unable to push education fixes through Congress, the Bush administration is taking its own pen to the No Child Left Behind law.


Schools Reclassify Students, Pass Test Under Federal Law - Will C. Wood Middle School faced a vexing situation when last year's test results came out in August. Most students had met the mark set by No Child Left Behind. But African American students' math scores fell far short of it, bringing the school into failing status in the eyes of the federal law. One hundred students were categorized as black when they took the test last spring. But if the school had fewer than 100 students in that group, their low scores wouldn't count. So Principal Jim Wong reviewed the files of all the students classified as African American on the test, he said, and found that four of them had indicated no race or mixed race on their enrollment paperwork. Wong sent his staff to talk to the four families to ask permission to put the kids in a different racial group.


MI Dismantling Failing Schools Right Way to Stem Dropouts - The devastating news that three-quarters of students who enter freshmen classes in Detroit Public Schools aren't around on graduation day would be even more horrific had it fallen on deaf ears, as have past reports on the performance of Detroit schools. But new school Superintendent Connie Calloway got out in front of the report from America's Promise Alliance with a surprise announcement that the district will dismantle five of the city's worst performing schools and replace them with smaller, innovative programs.


Law Opens Opportunities for Disabled - As Montgomery County ninth-grader Stephen Sabia reads "Romeo and Juliet" and studies the Holocaust and World War II for honors history and English, his mother credits an important ally in her years-long drive to secure the best education possible for her son with Down syndrome: the federal No Child Left Behind law.

Detroit Schools Graduation Rate: 32% - Just 31.9 percent of Detroit students graduate in four years, according to the first major study in Michigan conducted using a method now mandated by the federal government.

Teens May Get 5 Years to Graduate - Some Michigan students would be able to attend a fifth year of high school -- and not be counted as dropouts for failing to graduate in four -- if the federal government grants a request the State Board of Education will consider Tuesday.

Special Education Law Must ‘Give Way’ to NCLB, Court Says - A federal appeals court has turned away a lawsuit by two Illinois school districts and four families that said the No Child Left Behind Act was in conflict with requirements of the main federal special education law.


The No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: A Progress Report - This report examines the impact of NCLB and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) on improving educational outcomes for students with disabilities Over the span of six months, NCD spoke with more than 35 staff members from 10 states: California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania about NCLB and IDEA to compile this report which includes candid assessments of progress and remaining obstacles.

6th Circuit Court of Appeals Rules: No Federal Money, No NCLB Mandates - A school district does not have to spend state or local money to comply with a federal "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) requirement that isn't completely paid for with federal money, the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled Monday.

MI What Now? Lessons from Michigan About Restructuring Schools and Next Steps Under NCLB - CEP’s third review of school restructuring in Michigan finds that over half of Michigan’s 90 restructuring schools improved student achievement enough to meet the state’s AYP targets for two consecutive years, allowing them to graduate out of the school improvement designation altogether. A CEP analysis of the restructuring approaches used indicates that no single factor is most responsible for improving student achievement. Instead, schools that implemented five more reforms over the past two years were significantly more likely to exit restructuring than were other restructuring schools.


'No Child' Commission Presents Ambitious Plan - The Commission on No Child Left Behind proposed a wide-reaching expansion of the law yesterday that would for the first time require schools to ensure that all seniors are proficient in reading and math and hold schools accountable for raising test scores in science by 2014.


Next round begins for No Child Left Behind - When President Bush signed the landmark No Child Left Behind Act five years ago Monday, he conducted a three-state road show, touted its bipartisan roots, and promised it would put US schools "on a new path of reform, and a new path of results." In the five years since, critics and admirers of the bill tend to agree about the reform part, but say they're still waiting for results.


NEA to Challenge No Child Left Behind - A majority of the delegates at the National Education Association’s annual convention overwhelmingly approved a plan that would push for aggressive changes to the federal No Child Left Behind law, which is up for reauthorization next year. The nation's largest union, whose leaders have often complained they were not allowed to participate in the crafting of the country's chief education law, approved a plan that calls on NEA members to lobby Congress for reforms including establishing an accountability system that no longer relies only on testing as the measure of success or failure. Instead, the union recommends designing a system based on multiple benchmarks, including teacher-designed classroom assessments, student portfolios, graduation/dropout statistics, and college-enrollment rates, among other measures. The plan also calls for smaller class sizes, more funding for schools, and revisions to the definition of “highly qualified” teacher.


2 States to Experiment With 'No Child' Changes - Under a new pilot program, North Carolina and Tennessee will be the first states permitted to change the way they assess student progress under the federal No Child Left Behind law. The "growth model" assessment will allow the schools to be in compliance by measuring the progress of individual students annually, instead of an entire grade of different students.


IL 'Achievement Gap' Masked in Chicago Suburb - An analysis of test scores across the country showed schools deliberately are not counting the test scores of nearly 2 million students when they report progress by racial groups. The way states avoid separating out the scores of students of different races at the school level is to require a minimum number of students in each “group” before they are counted. Illinois has set its cutoff at 45 students.


Testing? YES! -- Standardized Testing? NO! - Here, in three short sentences, is why No Child Left Behind is dumbing down America's kids: 1. Teachers always teach to the test. 2. Under NCLB, the only tests that count are standardized and machine scored rather than teacher created and scored. 3. Machines can't evaluate and attach a number to complex thought processes, so complex thought processes don't get taught.


U.K. Reading and Naughtiness 'Linked' - Research on 2,200 twins finds poor behavior and reading in young boys - though not girls - are intertwined and intervention can tackle either area. “To our surprise we found genetics did not explain it. It's an environmental process, such as what goes on in the classroom, and this is important because it can be changed." Programs that target either reading problems or behavior problems during the pre-school and early primary school years are likely to produce changes in both areas, the research concludes.

The Center for Rural Education - The U.S. Department of Education has launched a new resource on the specific issues facing rural schools - particularly the challenges in implementing No Child Left Behind. The Center will provide information to local, state, and federal policymakers. Nearly 42 percent of the country's public schools are in rural communities or small towns.

New Booklet Available on NCLB: What Parents Need to Know - Parents and community leaders looking to understand how the No Child Left Behind law benefits their children may glean a greater knowledge of the legislation from a new brochure published by the U.S. Department of Education. No Child Left Behind: What Parents Need to Know summarizes the tenets of the 2002 law that seeks to ensure a high-quality education for every student and to close the achievement gap between children who typically perform well in school and those who do not—many of whom are from minority racial and ethnic groups, have disabilities, live in poverty, or do not speak English as their first language. The 12-page illustrated brochure provides, in simple language, the principles of the law that hold accountable all public K-12 schools, defining such terms as "accountability," "adequate yearly progress" and "flexibility." The publication also explains how schools are accountable to parents in providing report cards that reveal how a student, the school, the district and the state are faring based on test results data. Included is a sample graphic of a report card that simplifies these data. For a copy of No Child Left Behind: What Parents Need to Know, visit or order it toll-free, while supplies last, at (877) 4ED-PUBS with identification number EAT0264P.


New Rules to Aid 'No Child' Goals - Education Secretary Margaret Spellings outlined new testing rules for disabled students yesterday, formalizing an initiative that has already helped more than 100 public schools in Maryland and Virginia meet the standards of the No Child Left Behind law.

No Child Left Behind in Indian Country (PDF) - Through the past year National Indian Education Association (NIEA) has held eleven hearings on NCLB and Indian education to gather information on the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 on American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian students. Many witness identified unintended consequences upon culturally based education including the use of culturally appropriate pedagogy and curriculum connected to the social, cultural, and linguistic heritage of Native children, the role of Tribal governments and the unique role of Native communities and parents. Witnesses noted that NCLB has affected important traditional subjects playing a central role in Native life such as music, literature, and the arts. Witnesses also expressed concern that teachers were not expected by the statute to be able to teach linguistically and culturally unique students as a skill as an aspect of being highly qualified.

Failing Students, Rising Profits - Despite a tarnished history and no independent evidence that its student-customers fare better than in regular public schools, CEP uses political clout to carve a niche market serving students the public schools don't want, and it makes millions in the process. CEP's story is a primer on how the politics of education reform serve business interests. Its success represents the triumph of free-market ideology over sound pedagogy and the fallacy of the accountability-through-testing approach to teaching.


Letter from US Department of Education Secretary Margaret Spellings to State Chief Education Officers regarding Hurricane Katrina Relief and NCLB - "Given the differences in the nature and extent of the damage and circumstances among States, we believe an individualized, case-by-case approach is the most effective means for meeting the needs at this time. However, I wanted to describe for you some of the available resources and examples of the areas in which flexibility will be available."


Tech Helps Special-needs Kids Pass Key Tests - Whether, how, and how much educators should deploy technology to help special-needs students on high-stakes tests are complex issues in the era of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). [Free login/registration required.]

High School Overhaul Flunks Out - In his State of the Union address in January, President Bush hailed the progress of his No Child Left Behind Act in the nation's elementary schools and called on lawmakers to extend the program to high schools. But, "The president's idea was dead on arrival," said Robert Schaeffer, longtime public education director of the National Center for Fair and Open Testing. "Now it is well beyond rigor mortis."


Getting Honest About Grad Rates: How States Play the Numbers and Students Lose (PDF) - The past year has seen unprecedented attention paid to the nation’s public high schools.


NC North Carolina's Near Perfect Graduation Rate, and Other Fables - As they enter the fourth year of what they see as the oppressive No Child Left Behind regime, our state governments are fighting back. But among their acts of rebellion is one that, for some reason, I have yet to hear them brag about. Many states are finding creative ways to misinterpret the rules for reporting their statistics so that their school children seem to be doing wonderfully even though that often is not the case. Now there is a new report on how states are hiding their feeble high school graduation rates under thick glops of statistical nonsense.


Student Testing is Causing a Shift in Tech Spending - Public schools pressured to keep up with state and federal testing requirements are spending millions on high-tech systems to track and catalog their kids at the same time the federal government is cutting funding for the very same technology. The result: Instead of buying laptops for students or updating old hardware, school systems are raiding technology budgets to pay for data systems that keep track of test scores.


Maryland, Virginia Win 'No Child' Flexibility - Federal regulators grant states waivers in some of the No Child Left Behind law's educational requirements -- changes that could keep some schools from facing sanctions later this year.


Dept. of Education Statement Regarding No Child Left Behind Requirements for Paraprofessionals - Deputy Secretary of Education Ray Simon today issued the following statement regarding No Child Left Behind and the time frame within which all paraprofessionals working in Title I-funded programs must meet certain qualifications. Questions and answers on requirements for and assessment of paraprofessionals can be downloaded here (PDF).


FL Some Florida Schools Granted Reprieve from Failing Label in Unique Deal with Federal Government - Florida has cut a unique deal with the federal government to prevent nearly two-thirds of the state's public schools from being labeled as failures. It also could save school districts millions of dollars and affect whether thousands of parents will have the right to transfer their children to higher-performing public schools or have them tutored at government expense. The deal, which granted 825 schools "provisional" status for meeting federal reading, writing and math standards, arrived just in time for Gov. Jeb Bush's release of annual school grades in Tallahassee on Wednesday.


NEA, School Districts Sue Dept of Ed over NCLB - The National Education Association (NEA), eight school districts, and teacher organizations in 10 states on April 20 filed suit in federal district court accusing the Bush administration of failing to meet provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) that require federal funding sufficient to meet the demands of its landmark law.


ED to Increase Alternate Assessment Cap to 3 Percent - The U.S. Department of Education (ED) will announce this week that it is tripling the cap on the number of special education students who can take out-of-level tests and still have their scores count under the accountability umbrella of No Child Left Behind (NCLB).


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Over 175 additional articles on NCLBA in this section - new articles added frequently!


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Parental Rights & Involvement

Involving Refugee Parents in Their Children’s Education - “In our culture [Somali], you send the kids to school and they are the schools’ responsibility...Sometimes when the teachers have a problem understanding the mothers, I help them by translating for them. The first thing the mother will ask is, “What is she complaining for? Isn’t that her job? Isn’t she the one who is supposed to fix the child? Why is she telling me?” This article offers research-based tips and resources for how to involve refugee parents in activities at school.


Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships - This innovative guide reveals how to build strong collaborative relationships and offers practical advice for improving interactions between parents and teachers, from insuring that PTA groups are constructive and inclusive to navigating the complex issues surrounding diversity in the classroom.

National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education (NCPIE) - NCPIE was founded in 1980, at the initiative of what was then the National School Volunteer Program (now National Association for Partners in Education), with funding from the Ford Foundation and Union Carbide. At NCPIE, our mission is simple: to advocate the involvement of parents and families in their children's education, and to foster relationships between home, school, and community to enhance the education of all our nation's young people.

Featured Website: Give Kids Good Schools - Parents often want to do more to ensure that their child is getting the best education possible, but this can seem like an overwhelming task. This excellent list of resources and ideas is a good place to start.


The Parent, Family, and Community Involvement Guide (PDF)  from the Massachusetts Department of Education

School-Parent-Community Partnerships Resource Book (PDF) from the Indiana Department of Education

10 Ways That Parents Can Be Involved at Home (PDF) from the Indiana Department of Education

Best Practice Brief: Parent Involvement in schools (PDF) - This Brief is one of two developed on behalf of those schools facing the necessity to improve student performance scores. It summarizes information about the impact that parent involvement can have and the multiple ways in which parents can be involved with schools. The material is organized with bullets and checklists to facilitate its use by school personnel.

School Success Tool-Kit: Tools to Help You Get Involved in Your Child's Education (PDF) from


Parents' Involvement Not Key to Student Progress, Study Finds - A new study examining why similar California schools vary widely in student achievement produced some surprising results: Involved parents and well-behaved youngsters do not appear to have a major effect on how well elementary students perform on standardized tests.


Rethinking Parent Conferences - In most districts, parent participation in conferences drops off significantly in middle school and high school. Why do some parents, particularly those with children in the upper grades, avoid parent-teacher conferences? Shelley Billig of RMC Research Corp. gives three reasons: (1) Middle schools often put less effort than elementary schools into forging strong school-family partnerships; (2) Communication at the middle level tends to be one-way, mainly from principals and teachers to parents and often dealing with students’ poor academic progress and discipline problems; and (3) Middle school students often discourage their parents from attending parent-teacher conferences and from being visibly involved in school activities.


New Publication Introduces "Complementary Learning" - In the 4th edition of "The Evaluation Exchange," the Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE) examines "complementary learning" -- the idea that narrowing the achievement gap requires solid and sustained investments in nonschool learning supports, such as after school programs, early care and education, families, libraries, museums, and other community-based supports.


The new Family Strengthening Policy Center (FSPC) Web site is a clearinghouse of information and tools dedicated to family strengthening practices, programs, and policy. One of the principles on which the site is based is that families are strong when they are supported by safe and thriving neighborhoods. Resources include a number of policy briefs on topics such as parental involvement in education, mentoring, and community violence prevention.


Parents Have New Lesson For Schools - Many are now actively challenging leaders on curriculum, closings and more First in an occasional series on parental involvement in local schools. They can be pushy, brash and outspoken. And they can be a school board's worst nightmare, because when they become passionate about an issue, they don't let it rest.


Report: Building Strong Families - Parents are key stakeholders in both schools and communities—yet, they often complain of being left out of the discourse or not understanding it at all. The YMCA of the USA and the Search Institute have published a national study on minority parents that provides insights into their challenges. Although job loss and difficulty making connections with other community members are obvious issues, what parents really want is to spend more time with their children.


Special Report: Strengthening Parental Involvement in Middle & High Schools - Direct parental involvement in school decreases dramatically when a child reaches his/her teen years, yet such involvement is essential at the middle and high school levels and can be one of the strongest predictors of a teenager’s scholastic achievements. What drives this parental behavior and how can middle and high school educators improve communication with, and involvement from, parents? To read a comprehensive discussion with practical suggestions, scroll down to the “special report”.


MA Schools Fund Parent Organizers - The Boston School Committee approved a $712 million budget next year that includes $895,000 to hire 35 parent organizers. "We want to put resources in play to support families in schools and we want to do it in a worthwhile way," said School Committee Chair Elizabeth Reilinger.


Accomplished Teachers and Their Interactions With Parents: A Comparative Analysis of Strategies and Techniques - All elements of school improvement are more likely to succeed if parents help students focus on learning and teachers create effective partnerships with parents to ensure good schools and successful students (Epstein, 2001). identifying the family involvement practices of the most effective teachers remains largely ignored. Better understanding how teachers interact effectively with all parents is crucial for improving educational outcomes. Rick Ginsberg and Lauri Hermann-Ginsberg compare how certified and noncertified teachers interact with parents.

How Can We Prepare Teachers to Work with Culturally Diverse Students and Their Families - After videotaping different parent-teacher interactions during conferences, Bonnie Rockafellow, Education Consultant for the Michigan Department of Education, describes common themes observed and provides advice for preparing teachers to communicate more effectively with families during formal conferences and suggests that teacher preparation courses need to incorporate more interpersonal communication skill building into curricula so that teachers are better prepared to develop shared meaning with families.


National PTA Survey on Local Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act - The National PTA surveyed its members about the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) on local schools and districts. Eighty-five percent of respondents believe that NCLB is having a positive impact on student achievement. Fifty-five percent of respondents said that parent involvement provisions of NCLB are being implemented in their school or district, but 32% were unsure of the level of implementation and 13% believed that no provisions were implemented in their school.


MI Parent Engagement Information and Tools: Moving Beyond Parent Involvement to Parent Engagement - Michigan’s educators are among the best in the world and when the state, school districts, schools and parents unite to support one goal: to help Michigan’s children succeed, great progress can happen. Today, with new federal mandates, including annual testing and adequate yearly progress, increasing student achievement is more important than ever before. To continue the Michigan Department of Education (MDE) and State Board of Education’s commitment to increasing student achievement, we have developed a wide range of information and resources to assist districts and schools in their parent engagement efforts.


2 New Guides for Parent Leaders - No Child Left Behind provides parents with access to a treasure trove of data about the performance of their local schools. But the information is useless if parents don’t know where to get it or how to use it. Using Data as an Advocacy Tool, a new 8-page guide from KSA-Plus Communications, looks at how parent leaders can get smart about their school’s data… identify which students are being well-served and which students are not...and be able to ask the kinds of questions that lead to school improvement. A 30-page Parent Leadership Starter Kit, also from KSA-Plus, includes everything a parent leader needs to know to become a more effective advocate and decision-maker, including quizzes, checklists, a guide to using data, and lots of useful advice about making use of the No Child Left Behind law. Both guides, plus other resources (many of them free), are now available.


8 Tips on Using Your School’s Report Card (PDF) - Under the No Child Left Behind law, school districts must distribute a report card on how every school and the district as a whole are performing. This report also must include data on how different groups of students are doing. For many parents, this report card will be new. It’s different from the reports you get from your child’s teachers during the year. And it’s different from the test score reports that parents often get toward the end of the school year. Those reports tell you how your own child is doing. These new school reports tell you how your child's school is doing — compared to last year and the year before...and compared to other schools.

11 Tips To Help Parents Create Safer Schools (PDF) - Help prevent school violence and make your child’s school safer with this starter list of ideas. Some require only individual action; some require multiple actions by many people. Some address immediate crises; others address the basic problems that cause violence. Consider this list a launching pad — there’s lots more that can be done. Check out to learn more about what you can do to make schools safer and to stop school violence.

The Case for Parent Leadership (PDF) - When people are asked what parent involvement means, they most likely imagine an elementary school and young children. Then they think of helping with homework, going to parent-teacher conferences, volunteering in the classroom or playground, and attending PTA meetings. The purpose of this report is to argue for something more — a lot more.

12 Things Parents Should Know About & Expect From Your Schools...and Yourself (PDF) - At KSA-Plus Communications, we believe that knowledgeable, engaged parents improve student achievement. Students win, educators win, communities win. We offer a wide range of materials, workshops and strategic advice to parent groups, community organizations, housing coops, faith-based groups, business leaders, elected officials and educators who are committed to ensuring that all American children, no matter what their background, get the kind of education they’ll need to lead good lives.

10 Tips for Parents Who Choose To Stay Put (PDF) - Since the No Child Left Behind law was signed in January 2002, most of the attention has been on the choice provisions — particularly the requirement that low-income schools that fail to meet their learning goals for two years in a row must allow parents to transfer their child to a school with higher scores. Headlines from New York to San Francisco have shown how tough it has been to make this policy work: late and/or inaccurate data from states to school districts, late notification from districts to parents, letters that parents find hard to understand, and choices that they don’t like — such as a long, cross-town bus or subway ride. In many rural districts, there are no choices.


Schools Must Engage Parents, Survey Finds - Parents who take time to help teachers understand their child are less likely to feel like outsiders at the school and more likely to understand how to help their child learn, a new survey concludes.


Free Resources from The Parent Institute: 10 Things Any School Can Do to Build Parent Involvement... Plus Five Great Ways to Fail!, Sixty-Eight Parent Involvement Ideas That Really Work, Seventy-Five Ideas to Build Parent Involvement and Support, Selected Parent Involvement Research, Ten Questions About Parent Involvement, Forty-Four Proven Ideas Parents Can Use to Help Their Children Do Better in School, What Principals Would Tell Parents to Help Parents Help Their Children, and Tips Parents Can Use to Help Their Children.


New Parent Guide: No Child Left Behind - The National Center for Learning Disabilities and Schwab Learning have developed a handbook to help parents navigate and coordinate the federal No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education acts. No Child Left Behind requires schools to have a plan to help low-achieving children, including the almost 3 million children with learning disabilities, meet higher academic standards. The new 22-page guide addresses the law's emphasis on accountability, an explanation of the requirement of schools to improve test scores in math, science and reading over the next decade, and what happens if a school doesn't meet its goals. "Making the No Child Left Behind Act Work For Children Who Struggle to Learn: A Parent's Guide" is available free of charge at


Gary Stager on One-sided Parent Contracts - Here's a list of promises I think schools should keep...


No Class: Why Are "Public" Schools Closed to the Public? - It's back-to-school time. Unfortunately, despite school report cards and mandates like No Child Left Behind, many public schools still treat parents like mushrooms: feed them guano and keep them in the dark. This occurred to me when, like any good parent, I called the principal's office at my local public elementary school to check it out before sending my son.


Back-to-School Resources Help Parents, Students, and PTAs - To make getting ready for school easier for parents, students, and PTA leaders, National PTA has compiled resources and information in an expanded website. Parents can find articles on helping with homework, promoting good test-taking skills, keeping kids healthy, enhancing parent-teacher communication, and much more.


NY First-time School Parent Coordinators Making the Grade - A whopping 96 percent of the city's rookie parent coordinators received satisfactory or excellent ratings on their first annual report cards from principals, preliminary returns obtained by The Post show. The job evaluations showed that the coordinators met or exceeded expectations in helping their school improve relations with parents to help boost student performance.


We are the Parents. Is Anyone Listening? - No Child Left Behind aims at a dialogue with parents. But reaching them has not been easy.


MI New Michigan Law Requires Schools and ISD's to Draw up Plans to Encourage Parent Involvement for 2004-2005 School Year


Parent Advocacy Needed Where American Schooling Has Failed Children of Color - American schools have failed children of color due to a lack of resources, such as, books, high expectations, and a rigorous curriculum, writes Mary Johnson. To help parents become better advocates for quality educational opportunities, for the last three years a group of parents from South Gate and Lynwood, California have started a 13-week parent project to teach parents state standards, policy, and research methods to help them learn how to navigate and advocate for equal access for quality education for all children.


MI Teachers: Parents Don't Talk To Us - Michigan teachers say language barriers, unresponsiveness and time constraints make communicating with parents a struggle, according to a survey released today of more than 1,000 teachers statewide.


FL Schools Lure Parents Back to School - With so many high school graduates unsure of what they want to do afterwards, and with many of their parents unaware of opportunities for their kids, schools are trying to reach students through their parents. Greater efforts to get parents -- at every level of school -- more involved in their child's education are being made. More often, writes Christina Denardo, schools are tailoring their outreach program to boost student achievement and give parents what they want.


The Blame Game: Are Learning & Behavior Problems the Kids' Fault? - Parents of special ed kids often say that they are intimidated and patronized by staff at their children’s school. Are parents too sensitive? Do they misperceive and misunderstand what happens in their contacts with educators? Or are parents just over-protective of their children, as many educators claim? If school staff believe that you or your child are responsible for your child’s problems, how can you work with them to ensure that your child gets a good quality education?


No Parent Left Behind - Educators have recognized for some time that parent involvement plays a critical role in student achievement. Especially in urban districts it has become increasingly clear that failure to enlist parents as partners seriously hampers any school-reform efforts.


Parent Power - What sets this program apart from most workshops aimed at parents is that each graduate of the institute is expected to commit to planning and executing a project that addresses an area of weakness in his or her school or district. [Note: Registration is required before viewing this article at]


OH Parents Can Track Students on Web - St. Joseph in Falls uses Edline to let mom and dad peek at grade book.  When St. Joseph School signed on to the Edline at the start of the school year, the move brought groans from some students but cheers from their parents.


No Child Left Behind: What’s in It for Parents - Readers earn about six leverage points that everyone can use to ensure every child receives a high-quality education. You'll also find PDF links to six useful documents, including "What Must a Title I School Do To Promote Parent Involvement?" and "What if Your Child's School Is 'In Need of Improvement?'"  


This guide takes a closer look at how the new federal law requires schools and districts to involve parents in the hard work of school improvement. Readers also will learn about six leverage points that parents and community members can use to ensure every child receives a high-quality education. For each leverage point, the guide suggests specific steps parents can take to ensure that their schools are doing what the federal law requires of them. $15 Order form (PDF, 397 KB) or download the pdf documents for FREE below:

  No Child Left Behind: What's in it for Parents?

What Must a Title I School Do To Promote Parent Involvement?
What Must School Districts Do To Promote Parent Involvement?
What Must States Do To Promote Parent Involvement?
No Child Left Behind Act, Title I, Section 1118: PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
What if Your Child’s School Is “In Need of Improvement?”
Attention: Parents of English Language Learners



Parent Involvement Policies and the Law: What Parents Need to Know


What does the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 mean for states, families, educators and communities?

The States:




To view more information on this Act please visit:


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Info on the "No Child Left Behind" Website

from "Monday Morning in Washington, D.C." published by Jackie Golden of The Inclusion Research Institute of Washington, DC

On January 8, 2002, President Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The Act, which embodies his education reform plan sent to Congress on January 23, 2001, is the most sweeping reform of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) since ESEA was enacted in 1965. It redefines the federal role in K-12 education and will help close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and minority students and their peers. It is based on four basic principles: stronger accountability for results, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work.  Visit their Website at  The new "No Child Left Behind" Website offers: * An executive summary of the Act * A preliminary overview of programs & changes * The text of the Act * The conference committee report * What the Act means for your state.


No Child Left Behind Website - No State Left Behind: The Challenges and Opportunities of ESEA 2001 by ECS which highlights where many states are in relationship to some of the major requirements


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Adequate Yearly Progress


New Rules Give Credit to Underachieving Students for Making Progress - More Pennsylvania schools this year are likely to make adequate yearly progress on state tests because the federal government has approved a measure that considers student growth, not just whether students are proficient.


Grad Rates Likely To Drop With New Formula - Look for Michigan's overall high school graduation numbers to drop as the state prepares to release its data next week based on a new formula agreed upon by the National Governors Association (NGA).

Click here for more information on high stakes testing.


Meeting the Spirit of AYP Through School Reform: Cohesion, Coordination, and Alignment Lead to Student Achievement - This FOCUS on Results document offers information on why cohesion, coordination, and alignment of critical subsystems are essential for student achievement. This article looks at how the five subsystems work together to support student learning within and across programs through the process of educational change, systemic reform, and re-culturing.


Agency to Examine 'No Child' Loophole - Under pressure from lawmakers, the Bush administration outlined plans to examine why some states are excluding huge numbers of children when reporting test scores under the No Child Left Behind Act. The review comes after The Associated Press reported in April that nearly 2 million students were not being counted when schools reported yearly progress by racial groups.


MI Feds Shoot Down MDE Changes - The U.S. Department of Education (USDOE) has rejected portions of the Michigan Department of Education's (MDE) Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) plans to meet the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requirements. As a result, the AYP school report cards will be delayed, more schools will fail to meet the AYP and the MDE is likely to be assessed financial penalties up to $200,000 for 2007.


States Test Limits of Federal AYP Flexibility - This report finds that states are continuing to find new ways to calculate adequate yearly progress (AYP) under the No Child Left Behind Act in order to raise the number of schools and districts that meet the law’s student achievement targets. The report acknowledges that many of the changes are necessary adjustments made in response to states’ difficulties in administering the law, but calls on states and the U.S. Department of Education to be more transparent about the approaches used to calculate AYP.

MI State Releases School Report Cards (PDF) - The Michigan Department of Education today issued its EducationYES! Report Cards to Michigan elementary, middle, and high schools along with the annual report on each school’s Adequate Yearly Progress as required by the federal No Child Left Behind law. Also see: Schools Making AYP in 2005; Schools Not Making AYP in 2005; Districts Making AYP in 2005; and Districts Not Making AYP in 2005.


Education Secretary Hints of Changes - Education Secretary Margaret Spellings showed growing support Friday for letting states change how they score student progress, a potentially major policy shift. Under the No Child Left Behind law, schools are gauged based on how their current students perform compared with last year's students on math and reading tests.


MI Education Board Approves New Performance Indicators - Schools this fall will have a new set of performance indicators to consider for their Education YES! Report Cards. And this spring they will see those indicators have a little less weight.


Testing Companies Mine for Gold - There has been little public outcry over the fact that private, multinational companies operating beyond public oversight are determining which students, schools, and districts in the United States are deemed "failures" and which are deemed "successes." Given the secrecy that shrouds testing company operations, information is negligible. What the public doesn't know, the public doesn't complain about.


MI Department of Ed Faces $125,000 Fine - The Department of Education (MDE) faces a $125,000 fine by the federal government for not turning around the results of the 2004 Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) test for high schools until more than a month into the 2004-2005 school year.


NC State Tests Too Easy to Pass, Critics Claim - N.C. education leaders will review making ABCs more demanding. With more than 70 percent of North Carolina's students passing state tests, a growing chorus of critics is complaining that it's too easy to meet minimum standards.


MI 109 State Districts Miss Mark on Academic Goals - For 109 Michigan school districts, not meeting strict state academic goals is more than a challenge. It's just plain frustrating. And it's mostly because of one number: 30. On Thursday, the Michigan Department of Education, for the first time, identified school districts that do not meet academic goals. The state previously has only identified individual schools.


DE Delaware Education Chief Rips Extra Testing - The state's education secretary opposes a plan by President Bush that would expand a national testing program to high schools, but superintendents had mixed reactions.


MI About 4 in 5 Meet AYP Guidelines - According to the State Department of Education, nearly 80 percent of Michigan's public school districts met the federal guidelines for making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), as required by the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB).


MI 109 School Districts Fail To Make Federal Progress - State education officials will announce today that 109 Michigan school districts -- about one in every five across the state -- failed to meet federal progress standards this year.


MI Howell to Appeal Failing Grade - Officials say larger schools with special needs kids shouldn't separate MEAP scores.


MI More Michigan High Schools Fail - Higher standards are partly blamed for almost half missing the mark for No Child Left Behind.


MI Report Cards Target Specific Groups of Students - High school report cards due out today will focus attention on the academic progress of minorities, children with disabilities and other subgroups of students that some say are often overlooked. Schools will be graded on an A, B, C, D-alert or unaccredited basis under the state's Education YES! program. At the same time, parents will find out whether their children's schools made Adequate Yearly Progress under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.


MI Schools Making AYP For One Year - Preliminary calculations indicate that a number of schools that wereimplementing some phase of NCLB consequences, because of not making adequate yearly progress (AYP) in the past, have just made AYP on the 2004 EducationYES! report cards.

MI Schools That Did Not Make AYP - Schools that are in Phase 3 (Corrective Action) and Phase 4 (Development of Restructuring Plan) are reminded that NCLB - Section 1116(b)(8)(C) - requires that a school district: * Provide prompt notice to parents and teachers of the need for corrective action or restructuring planning, and * Provide parents and teachers an "adequate opportunity" to: 1. Comment before taking any action, and 2. Participate in developing any plan. This is a reminder to schools that did not make adequate yearly progress (AYP) on the 2004 preliminary school EducationYES! report cards that were just issued.


U.S. Guidance to States on How To Request an Exception to the 1% NCLB/AYP Rule for Students with Disabilities - Letter to Chief State School Officers Regarding Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in State Accountability Systems.


MI Tutoring at Work: Extra Help Gives Some a Boost - Darlene Stanfield never would be able to afford after-school tutoring for her school-age children, so she's thrilled she can get it for free. Seven of her nine children -- who attend four different Detroit public schools -- are getting the extra help at Sylvan Learning Center. "They're doing the same things they're doing in school -- it's tied to the school program, and they're anxious to go," Stanfield said.


MI The Many Ways to Flunk AYP under NCLB: Different Approaches, Different Results - Michigan Department of Education officials said today it shouldn't come as a surprise that some of the state's best schools were labeled as not making "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP) under the new federal guidelines, noting that a school has some 50 ways it can trip up.


MI Nearly 900 Michigan Schools Don't Meet Progress Goals - Nearly 900 Michigan schools didn’t meet progress requirements and 112 must begin planning for a restructuring under a tough federal law mandating that schools improve standardized test scores. Under the state’s accreditation system, nine schools were unaccredited -- the equivalent of failing -- in first-ever school report cards made public Friday. Of the schools that got grades, most received Bs and Cs.


U.S. Severely Disabled Students Get Own Rules - Students with the most severe learning disabilities can be held to standards designed just for them rather than those used for classmates, which could ease pressure on schools struggling to make yearly progress, Education Department officials said Wednesday.


MI PowerPoint presentation: Michigan's 216 "Priority" Schools. What Do We Do Now?

MI Parent Notifications Required in Michigan by No Child Left Behind Act - The purpose of this memorandum is to summarize the notifications that school districts and public school academies are required to provide to parents under the No Child Left Behind Act, and to clarify these requirements in light of the delay in the availability of 2002-03 MEAP results and calculation of 2002-03 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP).


MI Difficulty Making Adequate Yearly Progress Linked to Lead Poisoning - This map (click here for PDF map) overlays 2001-02 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status over elementary school attendance area in the city of Grand Rapids. The map then plots elevated blood lead level cases that are greater than or equal to 10 ug/dL in 2000 by elementary attendance area. Statistical analysis of these data (a F Test) indicated that schools having more children with lead poisoning greater than 10 ug/dL is significantly related to not achieving AYP status.


MI School Report Cards To Be Used For Guidance - State School Superintendent Tom Watkins told a gathering of Oakland County educators, student parents, government leaders and interested residents on Monday that school report cards expected to be released this fall are not meant to characterize underperforming schools as failing.


MI Ed Yes! Report Cards Still Planned for September - Problems with a contractor developing a new database for Michigan Educational Assessment Program test scores has delayed release of those scores, but the Department of Education is still aiming at having report cards under the new Education YES! accreditation system to schools by mid-September, officials said Tuesday.


MI Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Frequently Asked Questions - click here.


MI Michigan Schools Continue to Improve - Reports compiled according to federally mandated Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) formulas indicate that 88 percent of Michigan’s elementary and middle school buildings are making progress toward achievement testing goals.


MI Fast Facts: Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) "In Search of Greatness" pdf file (size=60kb)


MI Consequences For Schools That Do Not Make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)


MI List of Approved Supplemental Educational Service Providers - click here.


MI Adequate Yearly Progress Success Stories - Fairview Elementary School – Lansing Public Schools & Crary Elementary School – Detroit Public Schools


Frustration Grows as States Await 'Adequate Yearly Progress' Advice - State officials are frustrated and worried over a lack of federal guidance on setting annual performance targets for schools, as required by the nation's major education law. Fueling their concerns are preliminary simulations in more than a dozen states that suggest a majority of their schools could be identified as needing "improvement."


U.S. Secretary Rod Paige Explains "Adequate Yearly Progress" - under the new No Child Left Behind Act and How it Will Affect States and Schools


The Michigan Department of Education releases Phase 2 Schools Continuing to be Identified for Improvement that Did Not Make AYP in 2001-02.  View the list of schools in pdf - click here. - The schools in this group must revise their school improvement plans and submit them to the district for peer review and approval. They must also use at least 10 percent of their Title I funds for professional development to support the revised plan. The district must notify parents of students attending these schools and offer the option to transfer to a school in the district that is not identified for improvement, with transportation provided by the district. 


The Michigan Department of Education releases Phase 3 Schools Continuing to be Identified for Improvement that Did Not Make AYP in 2001-02.  View the list of schools in pdf - click here. - The schools in this group must continue to implement their revised school improvement plans and use at least 10 percent of their Title I funds for professional development to support the revised plan. The district must also notify parents of students attending these schools, offer the option to transfer to a school in the district that is not identified for improvement, and offer students from low-income families the opportunity to obtain supplemental educational services from a state-approved provider.


The Michigan Department of Education releases Phase 4 Schools Identified for Corrective Action that Did Not Make AYP in 2001-02.  View the list of schools in pdf - click here. - The district must notify parents of students attending these schools, offer the option to transfer to a school in the district that is not identified for improvement, and offer students from low-income families the opportunity to obtain supplemental educational services from a state-approved provider. The district must also take at least one of the following corrective actions with respect to each of the schools: Replace staff relevant to the failure to make AYP; Institute a new curriculum and provide appropriate professional development; Significantly decrease management authority at the school; Appoint an outside expert to advise the school; Extend the school year or school day; Restructure the internal organization of the school.


U.S. States Revise the Meaning Of 'Proficient'


MI MIRS 9-12-02 Education YES! Another Deadline Doomed? - Do it now or do it right. That is the dilemma facing the State Board of Education as it attempts to meet another self-imposed December deadline for implementing its accreditation system for Michigan's public schools, Education YES! – A Yardstick for Excellent Schools.


MI Gongwer 9-12-02 Board of Ed Trying to Determine At-Risk Schools Measures


Read the article "Paige Allows Wiggle Room For Late-Coming Test Scores"

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Teacher Qualifications


Poor & Minority Students are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality - A comprehensive study by The Education Trust has finally proven what anecdotal evidence has long suggested: Poorly qualified teachers drag down student achievement.


Achieving "High Quality" in the Selection, Preparation and Retention of Teachers - Although the typical age of college graduates has risen from age 22 to age 26, it is still generally true that most of those preparing to teach are college age youth, that is, late adolescents and young adults. Approximately 80% of those preparing to teach are youngsters below age 26 and approximately 20% are older "non-traditional" post baccalaureate students or adults in alternative certification or on-the job training programs.


No States Meet Teacher-quality Goal Set in Federal Law - Not a single state will have a ''highly" qualified teacher in every core class this school year as promised by President Bush's education law. Nine states, along with the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, face penalties.


Check your child's Michigan Teacher Certification Status

Bill Summary: The Ready to Teach Act - Congressional Republicans are targeting the nation's teaching colleges with the first in what will be a series of bills to reauthorize the Higher Education Act (HEA). The Ready to Teach Act seeks to ensure that teacher training programs are producing well-prepared teachers to meet the needs of America's students.


Read the article "California Definitions of Qualified Teachers Rejected by Ed. Dept."


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E-tutoring Now More Viable - Before the Internet revolution, parents drove their children to tutoring centers. Now, students are a computer click away from help.


IL Chicago To Get Relaxed Tutoring Rule - The Education Department plans to allow Chicago Public Schools to provide tutoring to struggling students even though the district itself has not met academic standards -- a waiver of federal rules that could have national implications, officials said Tuesday.


No Child Left Behind: Supplemental Educational Services Non-Regulatory Guidance - The U.S. Department of Education has issued guidance to further clarify the roles of states and districts in implementing supplemental educational services under the No Child Left Behind Act. The document, ³Supplemental Educational Services Non-Regulatory Guidance,² features ideas for connecting parents to supplemental education services providers, who offer free tutoring and other academic enrichment activities to qualified students whose schools aren¹t meeting their yearly progress goals. The guidance was last updated in 2003, and since then the Department has made several important policy decisions to address concerns from states, school districts, parents, and academic service providers.


PA Schools' Tutor Program Must Change, U.S. Says - The Philadelphia School District must make changes to its after-school program by September to continue as an approved tutoring provider under the No Child Left Behind law, the U.S. Department of Education has ruled.


SES Ruling Leaves Thousands Behind - A recent decision by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) gives a huge lift to private companies that supply after-school tutoring and other supplemental education services (SES) for the nation's schools--but it also could result in a disruption or loss of service for tens of thousands of students in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and other districts of similar status.


Supplemental services for students in failing schools: Helping eligible students in public schools “in need of improvement” receive the free, high-quality tutoring services they need. Visit for more details.


LA New Orleans Students Snub Free Tutoring - Fewer than 500 of 7,500 eligible New Orleans public school students have signed up for free, one-on-one tutoring that chronically poor-performing schools now are required to offer.


U.S. States Suffer Halting Start On Tutoring - At least five states have been operating under the impression—mistaken, according to the Department of Education—that none of their public schools must meet a key requirement in the new federal education law this school year.


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Supplemental Services


Is My Child Eligible For Supplemental Educational Services? - Children in schools receiving Title I funds that have not made adequate yearly progress for three years are entitled to supplemental educational services (SES)—free tutoring and other extra academic help outside of the regular school day. Also included, information on the Supplemental Educational Services Tool Kit.


INDIA Online Math Tutoring is Soon to be a Possibility - The offices of Educomp Datamatics in Delhi looks like any other Indian call center, apart from one crucial fact: Its staff are math tutors offering support to students in the U.S. Because of the Bush Administration's 2002 No Child Left Behind Act, if schools do not improve their pass percentages, they lose state funding. This has led some schools to turn to American tuition companies for help. Known as Supplemental Education Service providers, some of the larger ones such as, Smart Thinking and eSylvan, can charge up to US$40 an hour. Educomp Datamatics in India, on the other hand, charges only US$20-25 an hour.


Brochure Available To Help Inform Parents About Free Tutoring Under NCLB (PDF) - Thanks to No Child Left Behind, parents are receiving more options than ever before to help their children succeed in school. Under NCLB, low-income students in schools that do not meet state standards in reading and math for three consecutive years are eligible to receive supplemental educational services such as free tutoring.


Teachers' Unions Seize Opportunity to Provide Supplemental Services - The Rochester Teachers Association in New York and the Toledo Federation of Teachers in Ohio have both become approved supplemental-service providers in their states and are working with their districts to tutor children from low-income families and those who are struggling academically. [Free login/registration required.]


NCLB: Free Tutoring Resources Available Online - The American Institutes of Research's Supplemental Educational Services Quality (SESQ) Center has announced the launch a website that will help parents of children attending public schools "in need of improvement" take advantage of new, free tutoring opportunities provided by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. provides information and tools to help parents, educators, policymakers, and program providers ensure that eligible children get the free, extra academic help they need. Resources provided include: Basic information about supplemental educational services (SES); Detailed guidance on SES for families, providers, educators and policymakers; State by state profiles of SES implementation; National trends data on SES implementation across states; and Links to tools and resources on SES.


MI Supplemental Educational Services Memo from MDE to LDA and ISD Superintendents - If you have Title I schools in your district, one or more of them may be affected by a decision that has just been made regarding schools that made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in 2001-02, but are still identified for improvement or corrective action because they did not make AYP in either 1999-2000 or 2000-01.

Policy: Supplemental Educational Services Guidance (Word File) - Guidance on supplemental educational services, which refer to additional academic instruction designed to increase the academic achievement of students in low-performing schools

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